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Unformatted text preview: erson et al. 2001). The Cognitive Process Dimension, which refers to learning processes, is grouped into six categories (Krathwohl, 2002): Remember is to retrieve relevant knowledge from long‐term memory; Understand is to construct meaning from instructional messages: oral, written or graphic; Apply is to carry out or use a procedure in a given situation; Analyse is to break material into parts and determine how they relate to each other and to the overall structure or purpose; Evaluate is to make judgments based on criteria and standards; Create is to pull elements together into a new pattern or structure. These categories differ in complexity, with remember being the least complex and create being the highest rung of the Cognitive Process (Krathwohl, 2002). In teaching methods that use a linear presentation of materials (e.g. textbooks, lectures) students gain knowledge at the most basic level and memorise scientific facts without understanding the underlying concepts (Cepni, Tas and Kose, 2006). Table 1 lists examples of the verbs that can be used for each Cognitive Process to develop course materials and to assist in devising methods to teach at any level of the Knowledge Dimension; which verbs to be used and for what category of the Knowledge Dimension depend on the topics of the course. This list has been adapted from the diagram of the “task‐oriented question construction wheel” from St Edward’s University, (2004), based on the Bloom’s original taxonomy. Table 1: Verbs used to describe each category of the cognitive process dimension KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION Remember FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE META‐COGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE Memorise Name Recite Define Describe Identify State Locate Recognise Select Draw Label Write COGNITIVE PROCESS DIMENSION Understand Apply Analyse Match Confirm Restate Change Compare Paraphrase Express Explain Extend Relate Distinguish Illustrate Defend Generalise Infer Predict Summarise Transform Choose Compare Collect Contrast Discover Distinguish Classify Analyse Draw Categorise Interpret Classify Construct Differentiate Apply Analyse Change Examine Draw Infer Make Select Modify Inv...
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This document was uploaded on 03/09/2014 for the course ACC 301 at HELP University.
- Spring '09