At the same time qajar shahs accepted english

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Unformatted text preview: ran, wanted to encroach on its territory. In 1828, Russia seized Iran’s Caucasian territories and forced the Shah to accept Russian diplomatic and commercial agents. At the same time, Qajar shahs accepted English subsidies, and followed a pro-British foreign policy. The shahs brought in English officers to help reorganize their armies on western lines, and they began to send students to study in Europe. Shah Naser ad Din (1848-1896), like the Ottoman sultans, also followed a program of westernization. He reformed the tax system, centralized the bureaucracy, subordinated the provinces to central control, encouraged trade and industry, and reduced the political power of the Muslim clergy. In 1871, he established a European-style cabinet and a legislative council of senior princes and officials. Nevertheless, Naser ad Din was as unsuccessful as any other Eurasian ruler at escaping subordination by the West. England and Russia supplied him with money to bribe political leaders and to hire troops to intimidate the population. In return, the Shah promised not to interfere in Afghanistan and Central Asia, and he signed a Treaty of Capitulations that gave the two countries access to Iranian markets. Tsar Alexander II sent military officers to organize a “Cossack Brigade” which became Iran’s most effective fighting force; its Russian officers also promoted Russian interests. Russia took northern Iran as its sphere of influence and obtained concessions for insurance companies and banks. In 1890, a British venture,“The Imperial Tobacco Corporation” obtained a monopoly on the sale of tobacco in Iran. This led to a boycott by Iranian clerics and nationalists, massive demonstrations, and even rumors that a holy war would be declared against the agents of the west. The Shah cancelled the concession (agreeing, however, to compensate the shareholders for their losses). In 1896, Nasir ad Din was assassinated by an Iranian nationalist cleric. His successor obtained large loans from Russia, and, in exchange, reduced import tariffs. This allowed Russia to flood Iran with cotton cloth from Turkestan, bankrupting most Iranian textile producers and fueling nationalist anger. In 1905 merchants and clerics went on strike across Iran, and the following year the dying Shah granted a constitution and an elected parliament. In 1907, however, his successor revoked the constitution, and the rebellion resumed. This provided a justification for Russian and English forces to intervene. Russia occupied the north and exploited its economy, while England occupied the south and took possession of Iran’s oil fields. North Africa After the fall of the Abbasid Empire in 1258, North Africa became independent. This lasted only until the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire who, in the 1500s conquered Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt and turned them into provinces of the Ottoman Empire, ruled by governors appointed by the Sultan in Constantinople. Morocco Morocco, on the Eastern end of North Africa not only resisted the Ottoman Empire, but the Portuguese, as...
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This document was uploaded on 03/10/2014 for the course HISTORY 1020 at Wisc Platteville.

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