Baghdad was captured and sacked in 1258 mongol rule

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Unformatted text preview: nally destroyed with the invasion of the Mongols in the thirteenth century. Baghdad was captured and sacked in 1258. Mongol rule lasted for about a century, and it was followed by another century of anarchy. Ottoman Empire While the Middle East was in turmoil following the Mongol invasion, a dynamic new dynasty was growing in Turkey. In 1281, a Seljuk tribal leader, Osman established a small region in the middle of the Anatolian Peninsula. His descendants gradually conquered the entire peninsula, taking it away from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. They then expanded into the Balkan Peninsula—also at the expense of the Byzantine Empire. Essentials of Modern World History. Wk 8: Mid-East and North Africa, 1453-1914, © D. G. Rowley, 2004. Rev. 2011. 2 The landmark date in the rise of the Ottoman Empire is 1453—the year in which it overran Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire and brought that empire to an end. Then, beginning in 1512, under Selim I, the Ottoman Empire began to expand southward into the Middle East, and, by the end of his reign, he had conquered Baghdad and Mesopotamia. Selim was succeeded by Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) who expanded the Empire to its greatest extent and brought it to its peak wealth and power. During Suleiman’s rule, the Empire included Turkey, North Africa, the Middle East west of the Tigris River, Greece, the Balkan Peninsula, and Hungary. For the next century after the death of Suleiman, Europe lived in fear of Ottoman expansion; several times Ottoman armies advanced as far as the gates of Vienna. The Ottoman Empire controlled trade in the Black Sea, the Eastern Mediterranean, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf and enjoyed a period of prosperity unmatched in Eurasia. Nevertheless, its hostility toward Safavid Iran (which temporarily seized Mesopotamia), and its aggressive expansion in Europe was not conducive to economic cooperation. Its neighbors sought to by-pass, rather than trade with, Ottoman merchants. The decline of the Ottoman Empire was halted in the middle of the seventeenth century by a series of prime ministers who made taxation more equitable, suppressed rebellions, forced peasants to return to the land, encouraged trade, and prosecuted corrupt officials. These conservative policies restored the regime and allowed the government to turn the tide against Iran and to reconquer Mesopotamia in 1638. These reforms, however, did not change the Ottoman Empire’s military decline vis-a-vis Europe. After a series of defeats by the combined armies of Austria, Hungary, and Poland, the Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) and gave up Hungary to Austria. Europe didn’t realize it yet, but the long and gradual decline of the Ottoman Empire had begun. After 1700, the Ottoman Empire (often referred to simply as “Turkey”) continued to hold its own against Persia but in a war against Austria and Russia (1736-9) it was decisively defeated by the Russian army. Alarmed that Russia might annex the Balkan Peninsula, Austria withdrew from the war, and France...
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This document was uploaded on 03/10/2014 for the course HISTORY 1020 at Wisc Platteville.

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