EI+08+ME+NAfrica+1453-1914

Half of all tax revenues went to europe this

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Unformatted text preview: When the Egyptian government defaulted on its debts, England and France created a “French-British Debt Commission” which began to run the Egyptian economy—in the interests of European bond-holders. Half of all tax revenues went to Europe. This interference of Europeans in Egypt's affairs stimulated a nationalist movement among landowners, merchants, intellectuals, military officers, and Muslim clerics. There were popular demonstrations and a movement in the military to overthrow the government. The British, not wanting to lose their puppet ruler, invaded. After heavy fighting, the British conquered and occupied Egypt in 1882. Egypt was not officially a colony, but the Egyptian government was kept in power by the British army (which protected it from being overthrown by its own people), and it followed the policies of its British “advisers.” The higher levels of the bureaucracy were filled with British officials. The British promoted agriculture and ignored the development of industry and education. Raw cotton made up 90 percent of Egypt's exports, and the influx of cheap manufactured goods hurt the Egyptian handicraft industry. In World War I, after Turkey allied with the Central Powers, Britain made Egypt a “protectorate.” Algeria In 1830 France invaded Algeria and occupied the capital of Algiers, the ruler surrendered, officially ending Ottoman rule. (Algeria had been an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire.) It was not until 1847, however, that the French army could conquer the entire country–and this required a full-scale war; 100,000 troops (1/3 of the entire French army) were committed to the invasion. The colonization of Algeria accelerated in 1848, when Algeria was formally declared to belong to France. The best farmland was confiscated from the Muslim inhabitants and was allotted to European immigrants (French, Spanish, and Italian) who ultimately made up 1/6 of the population. The native Muslims were pushed onto marginal land, and about 1/3 of the population died. By 1900 the European colonists had established large-scale agriculture (specializing in wine and tobacco) and built roads, railroads, schools, and hospitals. The modern economy benefitted Europeans, and not the native Berber Muslims, who had been pushed off the land and had become second-class citizens, with no political rights and few legal rights. French settlers managed to have Algeria incorporated into France as an integral part of the government. The economy was based on production of wine and wheat for export to France. Essentials of Modern World History. Wk 8: Mid-East and North Africa, 1453-1914, © D. G. Rowley, 2004. Rev. 2011. 6...
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