The young turks fostered turkish culture used turkish

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Unformatted text preview: P. The CUP subordinated the religious establishment to secular control, improved the rights of women, and westernized the educational system. The Young Turks fostered Turkish culture, used Turkish instead of Arabic as the language of the Empire, and promoted panTuranism. Arabs were offended by this, and Arab nationalism was born. When faced with popular unrest in 1913, the CUP installed a dictatorship. Germany had been currying favor with Turkey since the 1880s, investing in the railroad system and providing military training and assistance. When World War I broke out, Germany on one hand, and France and Britain on the other, wanted Turkey as an ally. Turkey offered to join France and Britain if they would give up the Treaty of Capitulations, but France and Britain refused. Turkey then allied with Germany, upon payment of $5,000,000 in gold. Iran In 1501 Isma’il I, an Iranian, declared himself Shah ( King) of Iran and recruited an army from Central Asia and used it to conquer Iran. He established the Safavid Dynasty. Isma’il was a devout Shi’a Muslim. He declared Shi’a Islam the state religion, and he used it to foster the development of a unifying Iranian national identity. Shah Abbas I (1588-1629) brought the Safavid dynasty to the peak of its power, wealth, and territorial expansion. Abbas centralized and streamlined his government and army and increased the use of firearms. He was able to defend Iran from Ottoman aggression and preserve its independence. Abbas employed Armenian merchants to promote trade with Europe and particularly fostered the production of silk textiles and “Persian” (as Iran was known in Europe) carpets. After Abbas died in 1629, he was succeeded by a series of incompetent and corrupt rulers. The extravagance of the court and the expense of a large standing army led to excessive taxation; trade declined, internal rivalries weakened the army, and at the end of the century the Shah’s court was rife with greed, corruption, and incompetence. The last ruler, Shah Hussein (1694-1722) was very religious, but he was an incompetent ruler. In 1722, he was deposed by an invading Afghan army, and the Safavid dynasty to and end. Essentials of Modern World History. Wk 8: Mid-East and North Africa, 1453-1914, © D. G. Rowley, 2004. Rev. 2011. 4 The Qajar Dynasty Russia and Turkey planned to divide Iran between themselves, but before this could occur, Nadir Khan (1736-47), a Turk from eastern Iran, forged an alliance with remnants of the Safavids and restored a Persian empire, whose leaders were known as the Qajars. Russia immediately switched sides and allied with Iran against Turkey. Nadir Khan then defeated the Turks and drove them out of western Iran and the Caucasus. He added Afghanistan and Central Asia to his empire, but in 1747 he was assassinated and Iran again descended into anarchy. As the Qajar dynasty declined in the nineteenth century, England and Russia took advantage of Iran’s weakness to intrude. England wanted to subordinate Iran politically in order to protect its own access to India, while Russia, who shared a border with I...
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