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Unformatted text preview: ainst the interests of either Britain or Russia.
Abdur Rahman Khan (1880-1901) followed a
neutral foreign policy, and accepted British direction
(and money) in modernizing and unifying the
country. He made the first effort at state-building,
replacing tribal organization with provincial
governors, building a centralized bureaucracy, and
creating a national assembly of princes and religious
leaders. The local level was still self-governing,
Abdur Rahman negotiated a treaty that drew the
so-called “Durand” line separating Britishadministered India from Afghanistan. This line cut
across the territory inhabited by the Pashtuns, leaving
an actual majority of Pashtuns under British
administration. This line would cause enormous
problems after 1947 when India became independent.
(And the problems continue until today.)
In the reign of Habibollah Khan (1901-19),
western ideas and styles became more popular among
the wealthy elite. Habibollah followed a pro-British
policy, which became unpopular during the First
World War. Afghan nationalists supported the Central
Powers (Germany and Austria)—because they wanted
to be free of the continual pressure from Britain and
Russia. Habibollah was assassinated in 1919 by an
anti-British faction. Essentials of Modern World History. Wk 4: South and Central Asia, 1453-1914, © D. G. Rowley, 2004. Rev. 2011. 6...
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This document was uploaded on 03/10/2014 for the course HISTORY 1020 at Wisc Platteville.
- Spring '14