He made the first effort at state building replacing

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Unformatted text preview: ainst the interests of either Britain or Russia. Abdur Rahman Khan (1880-1901) followed a neutral foreign policy, and accepted British direction (and money) in modernizing and unifying the country. He made the first effort at state-building, replacing tribal organization with provincial governors, building a centralized bureaucracy, and creating a national assembly of princes and religious leaders. The local level was still self-governing, however. Abdur Rahman negotiated a treaty that drew the so-called “Durand” line separating Britishadministered India from Afghanistan. This line cut across the territory inhabited by the Pashtuns, leaving an actual majority of Pashtuns under British administration. This line would cause enormous problems after 1947 when India became independent. (And the problems continue until today.) In the reign of Habibollah Khan (1901-19), western ideas and styles became more popular among the wealthy elite. Habibollah followed a pro-British policy, which became unpopular during the First World War. Afghan nationalists supported the Central Powers (Germany and Austria)—because they wanted to be free of the continual pressure from Britain and Russia. Habibollah was assassinated in 1919 by an anti-British faction. Essentials of Modern World History. Wk 4: South and Central Asia, 1453-1914, © D. G. Rowley, 2004. Rev. 2011. 6...
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This document was uploaded on 03/10/2014 for the course HISTORY 1020 at Wisc Platteville.

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