Unformatted text preview: ants who were
Samarkand his capital, and then went on to conquer
employed in the civil service, transportation and
Iran, most of the Middle East, and northern India. In
communications, industry, education, and who took
1405, Timur led his armies to invade China, but he
over commerce as well.
died en route, and his armies turned back.
Central Asian Muslims were not considered
His descendants, the Timurids, ruled Central Asia
citizens and were not expected to integrate into
for the rest of the century, and in this period was a
Russian society. They frequently rebelled against
golden age of literature, arts, and architecture. Poets
Russian economic policies, which only reinforced the
Essentials of Modern World History. Wk 4: South and Central Asia, 1453-1914, © D. G. Rowley, 2004. Rev. 2011. 5 Russian belief that Central Asians were backward.
The nomadic peoples of Central Asia had a weak
sense of ethnic identity and were usually mobilized
not by secular nationalists but by Muslim leaders.
During a cholera epidemic in Tashkent in 1892 riots
broke out because men did not want their wives and
daughters to be examined by male doctors and
because the authorities insisted on immediate burial of
victims. Russian attempts at flood control and locust
control were opposed as interfering with God’s plan.
In 1898, an Holy War was declared in Fergana that
required 2000 troops to suppress. Sporadic rebellions
continued until World War I, and beyond. AFGHANISTAN
Historically, the territory now known as
Afghanistan, was the home of tribal nomads who
were fiercely loyal to their local kinship groups:
family, clan, and tribe. The region was made part of
the great empires of the past, from the Persians to the
Mongols to the Mughals (India) and the Safavids
(Iran). However, rule by foreigners is always brief. No
matter how much Afghan tribes might fight among
themselves, they always united against outsiders.
Indeed, they were such effective fights that they were
frequently hired as mercenaries by their neighbo...
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