Unformatted text preview: also complained about the
(machine guns and artillery) were given only to
drain of natural resources from India, the high
British regiments. Indian troop strength was reduced
pensions of civil service officials who retired in
from 240,000 to 140,000.
The British increasingly isolated themselves from England, and the size of the Indian army (paid for by
Indians. They lived in guarded camps outside Indian Indian taxes but used for British Imperial purposes).
The Indian National Congress was made up of
cities. Increasing numbers of British women emigrated
members of the professional class. More than half
to India, as wives or hopeful wives, and intermarriage
between Indians and Britons virtually ended. This was were lawyers and the rest were journalists, teachers,
businessmen, and other professionals. The were
reinforced by the rise of scientific racism in Europe
mostly Hindu (and Brahman, the highest Hindu
which taught that racial intermarriage was “bad for
caste). Only two were Muslim.
the species.” Respect and admiration for Indian
Muslims, who were a minority in India, were
society and culture was replaced with fear and
wary of the independence movement, since the British
told them that an independent Hindu nation would
In the middle of the nineteenth century the
government raised about half of its income from taxes discriminate against Muslims. In 1906, the Muslim
League was formed in order to promote Muslim
on farmers. Other major sources of funds were
interests; it declared its loyalty to the English
government monopolies on production of opium to
government and criticized the INC.
sell in China and on the production and sale of salt.
At the same time, however, more radical
In the second half of the nineteenth century,
nationalists called on the British to leave and resorted
Britain’s principal contribution to Indian economic
to violence. When some British officials were
development was continued railroad construction.
assassinated, the government responded by arresting
From 1858 to 1914, 35,000 miles of track was built.
and jailing suspects without trial.
However, the goal was not Indian prosperity, but to
In response to pressure from the INC, the British
promote colonial economic policies, that is, to export
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- Spring '14