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made a living by farming steadily increased under
Imperial India, 1857-1914
British rule until it reached 90 percent by 1900. (One
As soon as the Sepoy Rebellion was suppressed,
measure of “modernity” is a decrease in the number
in 1858, the British government dissolved the East
of farmers, meaning that India was becoming less, not
India Company and began to rule India directly.
Queen Victoria appointed a Viceroy who directed the more, modern.) In other words, the effect of English
policy was to deindustrialize India.
Indian Civil Service. The Viceroy appointed a
The British justified their rule over India by
Legislative Council to write laws for India, but it was
claiming that they were sharing their civilization with
not a democratic legislature; he could hire and fire its
members and he could veto any law that it passed. In the Indians and that Indians would eventually be
addition, the Legislative Council was made up only of capable of governing themselves. However, young
Indian men who graduated with honors from Indian
British residents; Indians were not appointed.
The British believed that Indian princes would be universities were denied jobs in the administration,
and many of them turned to journalism, where they
a conservative force, so it changed its policy of
pointed out the hypocrisy of British rule. The more
annexing Princely states and allowed them to be
inherited from father to son, providing the new prince outspoken were arrested and charged with sedition.
The first nationwide nationalist organization, the
swore allegiance to the British crown. There were 560
Indian National Congress (INC), which met in 1885,
princely states of various sizes–about half of India’s
was quite moderate. It did not call for independence,
but for the appointment of more Indians to legislative
British troop strength was raised from 45,000 to
councils and for equal opportunity in employment in
65,000 and the most advanced military equipment
the Indian Civil Service. It...
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- Spring '14