Unformatted text preview: ated a large, wealthy, and powerful
law, and protected by English military forces. The
empire that included almost all of the subcontinent of British also created armies made up of Indians (known
as sepoys) which were led and trained by British
The Mughals were Muslims, but the secret to their officers.
success was Akbar’s policy of accommodation of
At this time British trade was beneficial to India.
Hindus and Hinduism. He gave Hindu leaders high
Indian merchants profited from the sale of goods for
positions in his government, permitted the building of export, and India, as a whole, enjoyed a positive
Essentials of Modern World History. Wk 4: South and Central Asia, 1453-1914, © D. G. Rowley, 2004. Rev. 2011. 2 seeking converts, and building publishing houses,
schools, orphanages, and hospitals. East Indian
Company authorities outlawed and attempted to
suppress sati (the suicide of widows on their deceased
husbands’ funeral pyres) and child marriage (it wasn’t
unusual for middle-aged men to marry girls under the
age of 16).
The British also decided that their civilization was
superior to Indian civilization, and they therefore
began to apply English law consistently, and also to
build an Indian education system based on the British
model: teaching western literature, science,
philosophy, and political thought.
The economy began to change after 1818 as a
result of the industrial revolution. Cheap cotton
textiles were the first major factory-produced good,
and England began to flood the Indian market with
cheap cotton cloth. Since they also began to put heavy
taxes on Indian cotton, the Indian textile industry
(home-spun cloth as a supplement to farming)
collapsed, throwing millions into poverty.
Indian merchants, bankers, and the middle class
began to suffer too, since the English began to run the
economy themselves and no longer needed Indian
associates. No Indians were allowed to enter the
higher ranks of the civil service, and the prestigious
and high-paying jobs were reserved for the English.
In the 1850s, to integrate the entire subcontintent
under their military and administrative control, the
British created a nation...
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This document was uploaded on 03/10/2014 for the course HISTORY 1020 at Wisc Platteville.
- Spring '14