Wk 4 south and central asia 1453 1914 d g rowley 2004

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Unformatted text preview: n enlightenment lose INDIA Essentials of Modern World History. Wk 4: South and Central Asia, 1453-1914, © D. G. Rowley, 2004. Rev. 2011. 1 artisans and an elaborate commercial network. India was famous across Eurasia for the production of sugar, spices, dye, ivory, wood products, and silk and cotton textiles. India was in direct trade contact with East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast and East Asia. Buddhism Buddhism is a religion created by Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha, 563-483 B.C.E.), an Indian born into the highest, princely caste.The Buddha accepted the basic Hindu conceptions of the reincarnation of souls, karma, and the ultimate extinction of the soul in nirvana, but he rejected the caste system and believed in the equality of all. The essential teaching of Buddhism is that life is suffering, that suffering is caused by desire for material things and sense experience, that nirvana is the escape from the cycle of suffering and blissful unity with the cosmos. Religious practice for Buddhists includes meditation and observing five moral precepts: do not kill, do not steal, do not be unchaste, do not lie, and do not take intoxicating substances. For several hundred years Buddhism was the dominant religion in India, but Hinduism gradually revived and replaced it. By the 1200s, Buddhism had entirely disappeared in India, but it spread east where it became the religion of elites in China and Japan and of the majority of the population in Southeast Asia. Islam in South Asia Trade with the Middle East brought Islam, which spread among Indian merchants. Large Muslim communities grew up in the western and eastern parts of India, and Hindus and Muslims lived side-by-side in (relative) peace. new Hindu temples, and encouraged Hindu festivals. The unification of most of India and the promotion of law and order encouraged trade and the growth of handicrafts and commercial cities. Akbar’s achievements did not last long, however. Aurangzeb (1658-1707), the last effective Mughal ruler, severely weakened the empire. He allowed the bureaucracy to decay, and he bankrup...
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