Unformatted text preview: grown in the
United States. Closely related to red wheats
(except for color genes), this wheat has a milder,
sweeter flavor, equal fiber and similar milling and
baking properties. Used mainly in yeast breads,
hard rolls, bulgur, tortillas and oriental noodles.
Used primarily in domestic markets, although it is
exported in limited quantities. SOFT WHITE WHEAT
Used in much the same way as Soft Red Winter
(for bakery products other than bread). Grown
mainly in the Pacific Northwest and to a lesser
extent in California, Michigan, Wisconsin and
New York. Low protein, but high yielding.
Produces flour for baking cakes, crackers,
cookies, pastries, quick breads, muffins and
snack foods. Exported to Far East Asian region. Hard Red Spring Wheat White Wheat Hard Red Winter Wheat Durum and Soft Red Winter Wheat A wheat grain is made up mostly of starchy endosperm
wheat The wheat kernel is the seed from which the wheat plant
grows. Each seed contains three distinct parts that are
separated during the milling process to produce flour.
Endosperm ..about 83 percent of the kernel weight. It is the source of white flour. The endosperm contains the greatest share of the protein in the whole kernel, carbohydrates, iron as well as many Bcomplex vitamins, such as riboflavin, niacin, and thiamine. Bran
Bran ..about 14.5 percent of the kernel weight. Bran is included in whole wheat flour and is also available separately. Of the nutrients in whole wheat, the bran contains a small amount of protein, larger quantities of the B
complex vitamins, trace minerals, and indigestible cellulose material also called dietary flour. Germ
Germ ..about 2.5 percent of the kernel weight. The germ is the embryo or sprouting section of the seed, usually separated because of the fat that limits the keeping quality of flour. The germ contains minimal quantities of protein, but a greater share of Bcomplex vitamins and trace minerals. Wheat germ can be purchased separately and is included in whole wheat flour. Unlike any other plantderived food, Unlike any other plantderived food, wheat contains gluten protein, which enables leavened dough to rise by forming minute gas cells that hold carbon dioxide during fermentation. This process produces light textured bread. Flour from hard wheats (varieties evolved Flour from hard wheats (varieties evolved for the most part from T. aestivum) contains a high percentage of gluten and is used to make bread and fine cakes. The hardest
kerneled wheat is durum (T. durum); its flour is used in the manufacture of macaroni, spaghetti, and other pasta products. White and softwheat varieties are paler and have starchy kernels; their flour is preferred for piecrust, biscuits, and breakfast foods. Gluten is a mixture of proteins present Gluten
in the cereal grains. The long molecules of gluten, insoluble in water, are strong and flexible and form many cross linkages. This gives flour its characteristic chewiness and permits breads and cakes to rise during baking as the gases within e...
View Full Document
- Fall '11