Unformatted text preview: and machines (mostly animal powered) by 1890 the time had decreased to about 50 hours. As modern machinery took over the time was down to 5 hours in 1965, and today it is about 2 hours. Among the more ancient, and now less Among the more ancient, and now less frequently cultivated, species are einkorn (T. monococcum), emmer (T. dicoccum), and spelt (T. spelta). Modern wheat varieties are usually classified as winter wheats (fallplanted and unusually winter hardy for grain crops) and spring wheats. Approximately three fourths of the wheat grown in the United States is winter wheat. Several other species of wheat have also Several other species of wheat have also been domesticated, some very early in the history of agriculture:
Spelt, a close relative of common wheat.
Einkorn, a wheat species with a single grain.
Emmer, one of the first crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent.
Durum, the only tetraploid species of wheat currently cultivated.(semolina) Wheat after millennia of hybridization Wheat after millennia of and modification by humans, has strains that are diploid (two sets of chromosomes), tetraploid (four sets of chromosomes) with the common name of durum or macaroni wheat, and hexaploid (six sets of chromosomes) with the common name of bread wheat. Polyploid is a term used to describe Polyploid
organisms containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. Most species are diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes — one set inherited from each parent. However polyploidy is found in some organisms and is especially common in plants. Polyploidy refers to a numerical change in a whole set of chromosomes. Haploid (single), Haploid (single), diploid (double), triploid (triple), and tetraploid (quadruple) sets of chromosomes. Triploid and tetraploid chromosomes are examples of polyploidy. Wheat Producers (million metric ton)
European Union 125 2 China
45 6 Canada 25
15 #1 China: 87,000 thousand metric
tons #2 India: 67,000 thousand metric
tons #3 United States: 63,590 thousand metric
tons #4 Russia: 34,000 thousand metric
tons #5 Australia: 24,000 thousand metric
tons #6 Canada: 22,000 thousand metric
tons #7 Pakistan: 18,200 thousand metric
tons #8 Turkey: 17,200 thousand metric
tons #9 Argentina: 13,500 thousand metric
tons # 10 Kazakhstan: 12,000 thousand metric Country Wheat
Wheat area, production,
Mt WORLD 142,331,335 637,444,480 3.41 United States of
America 28,789,240 256,904,560 8.92 China 23,520,000 114,175,000 4.85 Brazil 12,935,200 47,809,300 3.70 Mexico 7,780,880 19,652,416 2.53 Argentina 2,322,857 15,040,000 6.47 India 7,000,000 14,800,000 2.11 France 1,667,000 11,898,000 7.14 Indonesia 3,354,692 10,910,104 3.25 South Africa 3,350,000 9,714,254 2.90 Canada 1,226,100 9,587,300 7.82 Romania 3,119,104 9,576,985 3.07 Italy 1,159,370 8,978,180 7.74 Yield,
Mt/ha Per Capita Wheat Consumption (Kg)
12China 308 24...
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- Fall '11