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Unformatted text preview: eat has two distinct growing seasons. Winter wheat, which normally accounts for 70 to 80 percent of U.S. production, is sown in the fall and harvested in the spring or summer; spring wheat is planted in the spring and harvested in late summer or early fall. There are several hundred varieties of There are several hundred varieties of wheat produced in the United States, all of which fall into one of six recognized classes. Where each class of wheat is grown depends largely upon rainfall, temperature, soil conditions and tradition. Generally speaking, wheat is more often grown in arid regions where soil quality is poor. Wheat classes are determined not Wheat classes are determined not only by the time of year they are planted and harvested, but also by their hardness, color and the shape of their kernels. Each class of wheat has its own similar family characteristics, especially as related to milling and baking or other food use. Botanically, there are thousands of varieties of wheat Botanically, there are thousands of varieties of wheat which fall into six major classes that are grown in the United States. The six classes are based on planting and harvesting dates, as well as hardness, color and shape of kernels. The classes are hard red spring, hard red winter, soft red winter, hard white wheat, soft white wheat and durum. Hard wheats are higher in protein and gluten and are therefore usually used for yeast breads. Soft wheats make very tender pastries, cakes, cookies, flatbreads, crackers and muffins. Soft and hard wheats are often blended to make all­purpose flour. The hardest wheat, durum, is primarily used for making pasta. HARD RED WINTER The dominant class in U.S. exports and the largest class produced each year. Produced in the Great Plains states, a large interior area extending from the Mississippi River west to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada to Mexico. Wide range of protein content, good milling and baking characteristics. Used to produce bread, rolls and, to a lesser extent, sweet goods and all­ purpose flour. Major foreign buyers include Russia, China, Japan, Morocco and Poland. HARD RED SPRING Contains the highest percentage of protein, making it an excellent bread wheat with superior milling and baking characteristics. Majority of crop is grown in Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Minnesota. Exported largely to Central America, Japan, the Philippines and Russia. SOFT RED WINTER Grown primarily east of the Mississippi River. High yielding, but relatively low protein. Used for flat breads, cakes, pastries, and crackers. Largest customers are China, Egypt and Morocco. DURUM The hardest of all U.S. wheat and consistently the class with the lowest export volume, accounting for less than 5 percent of all U.S. wheat exports. Grown in the same northern states as Hard Red Spring, although 70 to 80 percent of the U.S. annual production comes from North Dakota. Used to make semolina flour for pasta production. The largest importer is Algeria. HARD WHITE WHEAT The newest class of wheat to be...
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