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Unformatted text preview: xpand and are trapped in the gluten superstructure. Various flours have different ratios Various flours have different ratios of gluten to starch (called hardness) and are appropriate for different types of foodstuffs. Thus soft flour is used for cakes, harder flour for pastry, hard flour for bread, and the hardest, or durum, for pasta. Leavened bread has been around since the days of
ancient Egypt, Babylon and Greece. Then, as now, it
was made from wheat, or from a mixture of wheat and
rye. The elastic gluten is essential for bread to rise.
rye. Bread making in Cyprus
Bread Bedouins Making Bread
Bedouins Baking bread in a clay oven in Mali.
Baking Woman from Egypt, bakes several
loaves of bread in giant clay “jar.”
loaves Types of Flours
AllPurpose Flour Allpurpose flour is the finely ground endosperm of the wheat kernel separated from the bran and germ during the milling process. Allpurpose flour is made from hard wheats or a combination of soft and hard wheat from which the home baker can make a complete range of satisfactory baked products such as yeast breads, cakes, cookies, pastries and noodles. Bread Flour
Bread flour, from the endosperm of the wheat kernel, is milled primarily for commercial bakers but is also available at retail outlets. Although similar to allpurpose flour, it has a greater gluten strength and generally is used for yeast breads.
Selfrising flour is an allpurpose flour with salt and leavening added. One cup of selfrising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt. Selfrising flour can be substituted for allpurpose flour in a recipe by reducing salt and baking powder according to those proportions. Whole Wheat Flour
Whole Wheat Flour
Whole wheat flour is a coursetextured flour ground from the entire wheat kernel and thus contains the bran, germ and endosperm. The presence of bran reduces gluten development. Baked products made from whole wheat flour tend to be heavier and denser than those made from white flour.
Cake Flour Milled from soft wheat. Especially suitable for cakes, cookies, crackers and pastries. Low in protein and gluten.
Pastry Flour Milled from a soft, low gluten wheat. Comparable in protein but lower in starch than cake flour. Gluten Flour Used by bakers in combination with Gluten Flour
flours having a low protein content because it improves the baking quality and produces gluten bread of high protein content.
Semolina Coarsely ground endosperm of durum wheat. High in protein. Used in high quality pasta products.
Durum Flour Byproduct...
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This document was uploaded on 03/10/2014 for the course AGRO 1001 at LSU.
- Fall '11