Gtheindus andeuphratesvalleysby4000bcchina

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Unformatted text preview: y wheat have been discovered in some of the oldest excavations of the world in eastern Iraq, which date back 9,000 years. Wheat was one of the first of the grains Wheat was one of the first of the grains domesticated by humans. Bread wheat is known to have been grown in the Nile valley by 5000 B.C., and its apparently later cultivation in other regions (e.g., the Indus and Euphrates valleys by 4000 B.C., China by 2500 B.C., and England by 2000 B.C.) indicate that it spread from Mediterranean centers of domestication. Other archeological findings show that bread wheat was grown in the Nile Valley about 5,000 B.C. as well as in India, China, and even England at about the same time. Wheat was first grown in the United States in 1602 on an island off the Massachusetts coast. Wheat was originally a wild grass. Wheat was originally a wild grass. Evidence exists that it first grew in Mesopotamia and in the Tigris and Euphrates River valleys in the Middle East nearly 10,000 years ago. As early as 6,700 B.C. Swiss lake dwellers used wheat in flat cakes. It was the Egyptians who discovered how to It was the Egyptians who discovered how to make yeast­leavened breads between 2,000 and 3,000 B.C. Since wheat is the only grain with sufficient gluten content to make a raised or leavened loaf of bread, wheat quickly became favored over other grains grown at the time, such as oats, millet, rice, and barley. The workers who built the pyramids in Egypt were paid in bread. Wheat has played a major role in the development of the world civilization. The domestication of wheat was a major event in world civilization because it allowed humans to change from nomadic hunter gathers to permanent residents of specific locations. Wheat Harvesting in Afghanistan Wheat www.icarda.org/.../Wheat/wheat.html The invention of the mechanical reaper by The invention of the mechanical reaper by Cyrus McCormick in 1831, made it possible to harvest wheat much more efficiently than by hand with scythes or sickles. By hand, farmers could cut only 2 acres of wheat a day. With Cyrus McCormick's invention of the mechanical reaper, farmers could cut 8 acres a day. Today's modern combines can cut an acre of wheat in 6 minutes or less. In the 2009­2010 crop year, the world In the 2009­2010 crop year, the world produced 2.26 billion metric tons of cereals. Approximately 0.2 metric tons (440 pounds) of cereal grains provide the food energy an average human needs for a year. Dividing the 2.2 billion metric tons produced by 0.2 metric tons required per person shows that current grain production could feed 11 billion people. Of today’s (almost) 7 billion people, Of today’s (almost) 7 billion people, nearly one billion are chronically hun . Why? Roughly one third of grain is consumed by domestic animals. More than one sixth of grain goes into industrial products like biofuels and starch, seeds, and other uses. Less than half of world cereal production feeds humans. The McCormick Reaper of 1831 The In 1830 it took about 275 hours of In 1830 it took about 275 hours of labor to produce 100 bushels of wheat. With new inventions...
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