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Unformatted text preview: hanol, as yeast cells cannot 12-15% as survive in higher concentrations of ethanol. High sugar content is necessary for fermentation to proceed in a desirable manner. Because of this, the sugar-rich species of grape Vitis vinifera is used for the majority of the Vitis wines produced around the world. As many as 4000 varieties (cultivars) of As many as 4000 varieties (cultivars) of Vitis vinefera have been developed and are used in the production of wines. Diversity and quality of wine results not only from the type of grape used, but also from the distinctive qualities of soil, topography, and climate. Although the specifics of winemaking can vary from location to location and the individual fermenting techniques, the basic steps involved in winemaking are similar for most wineries. There are three main categories of There are three main categories of wine: table wines, sparkling wines, and fortified wines. Table wines can be red, white, or rose, are allowed to ferment naturally, and account for the bulk of the world’s wine production. Sparkling and fortified wines are made by processes similar to the table wines, but extra steps are added to give the carbonation or extra alcohol desired. Initial Production Stages (For All Wines) Initial Production Stages Once the grapes have been picked and Once transported to the winery, steps must be taken before the actual winemaking can begin. Cleanliness and sanitation are essential for good winemaking, as troublesome bacteria can cause disastrous results. Equipment must be sanitized with an O2 based caustic solution, rinsed with an water, and finally treated with an antiwater, bacterial sulfite solution. bacterial To rid the equipment of excess sulfite, To rid the equipment of excess sulfite, everything is rinsed with water one more time. It is estimated that approximately ten gallons of good quality water are needed for every one gallon of wine produced. Upon arriving at the winery, grapes are treated with 50­75 ppm of free su...
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