Wine can also be made from other species or from

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Unformatted text preview: nnay, or Merlot, for example, is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75 or 85%) the result is a varietal, as opposed to a blended wine. Blended wines are in no way inferior to varietal wines; indeed, some of the world's most valued and expensive wines from the Bordeaux, Rioja or Tuscany regions, are a blend of several grape varieties of the same vintage. Wine can also be made from other species or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. Vitis labrusca, Vitis aestivalis, Vitis Vitis Vitis rupestris, Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are rupestris Vitis Vitis native North American grapes, usually grown for eating as fresh fruit or made into grape juice, jam, or jelly, but sometimes made into wine, e.g. ‘Concord’ wine (Vitis labrusca species). ‘Concord’ Although generally prohibited by law in traditional wine regions, French-American hybrids are planted in substantial numbers in hybrids cool-climate viticultural areas. Hybrids are not to be confused with the practice of grafting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. vinifera vines that V. have been grafted onto North American species rootstocks. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera (a root louse). Grafting is done in phylloxera every wine-producing country of the World except for Chile and Argentina, which have yet to be exposed to the insect. Fighting the "phylloxera plague" Fighting the "phylloxera plague" In the late 1800s the phylloxera epidemic destroyed most of the wine grape vineyards in Europe, most notably in France. Phylloxera was inadvertently introduced to Europe in the 1860s, possibly on imported North American plants. Because Phylloxera is native to North America, the native grape species there are at least partially resistant. By contrast, the European wine grape Vitis vinifera is very susceptible to the aphid­like insect. The epidemic devastated most of the European wine growing industry. Some estimate...
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