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Two pressingandsettling pressingandsettling the

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Unformatted text preview: n After a couple days of cold soaking, the After must is inoculated with yeast and fermentation begins. The carbon dioxide that is produced by the fermentation pushes skins to the top of the tank or bin, making a ‘cap’ on top of the liquid. This cap is kept in contact with liquid as much as possible because gives the juice color and tannins. Tannins are the group of chemicals that Tannins naturally exist in the skin and seeds of the grapes (and many other plants). They give finished wine varying degrees of astringency. finished There are two ways that the cap is kept in contact with the wine: ‘punching down’ and ‘pumping over’. In the process of punching down, the caps are manually pushed down into the juice, usually with a pole device. Historically, people have used their feet for punching down the cap. For larger quantities of wine, pumping over is more common: a pump that attached to the bottom of the tank, and the juice is pumped over to the top of the cap and circulated this way for 15-20 min. Either process may be used, but both must be repeated two to four times a day, until fermentation is complete. two Pressing and Settling Pressing and Settling The amount of time that a wine ferments varies The with the type of grape and the method of the winemaker. In average musts, yeasts convert sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide in 10 to 14 days. In wines that have a higher concentration of sugar, fermentation can take up to months. Although there is no definitive test to tell when fermentation is done, the loss of cloudiness in the must indicates that fermentation is complete. After fermentation, the juice (now wine) is pressed away from skins into a holding tank, where it sits for a few days to allow sediments and dead yeast cells to settle out. Aging The wine is put into oak or redwood barrels for aging. Aging allows oxygen to enter, and water and alcohol to escape. The acidity decreases, clarification takes place, and components of wine form compounds to enhance flavor and aroma. The wood also contributes to the flavor. Malo-lactic fermentation commonly occurs during the aging of red wines, and contributes to the mellowing of the...
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