IB35ACS Study Guide

3 standard deviation33 no modern technology stops

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Unformatted text preview: ream and randomly encounter antigens ● Number of antibodies o Human Genome Project ~32,000 genes o Antibodies: A LOT: >10 billion? because of gene recombination and somatic hypermutations ● Gene recombination o Antibodies - 1.6 million from only 129 different gene fragments but we can make over 10 billion from other stuff ● ● ● ● ● ● o Light side has two sites (V,J) Heavy (V,D,J) Somatic Hypermutation o binding site shape changes a little o natural selection: variation, heredity, fitness o the one with the highest binding ability will proliferate really fast Mutations o nuclear DNA mutates: 1/600- 1/40 times per generation o antibody genes mutate ~10,000 times faster, 17- 250 times per generation Arthritis: Joints o Rheumatoid Factor: antibodies to other antibodies form immune complexes that cause inflammation o half the risk believed to be genetic Diabetes: Pancreas o Antibodies to β islet cells that produce insulin, auto- immune response o If an immediate relative with type 1 diabetes, one’s risk is 10- 20 times higher Grave’s Disease: Thyroid o Antibodies to TSH receptor o 79% of the liability attributable to genetic factors o unregulated overproduction of thyroid hormones: increased metabolism SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease) o Bubble Boy: no RAG, no adaptive immune system ● ● ● o opposite on top doesn’t work o Works on heterozygous grey mouse on bottom o a/b on a/a or b/b, both get rejected Hygiene hypothesis o...
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