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IB35ACS Study Guide

5 codes7 the rest accounts for regulatory elements

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Unformatted text preview: from mother ▪ Mitochondrial DNA evidence for COALESCENCE ● Most variation in African populations ● Variation in other populations subsumed within African variation o o ● Modern Human Origin Hypothesis ▪ Multiregionalism ▪ Replacement (Out of Africa) The Molecular Clock ▪ Constant over all evolutionary lineages ▪ Allows us to trace mtDNA ● All mtDNA Coalesce around 200,000 years ago o Bottleneck effect ● Who is the mtDNA MRCA (most recent common ancestor) ● BLAHHH so many graphs ● MRCA mtDNA: 150,000- 200,000 ya ● YDNA: 100,000- 200,000 ya ● Neanderthals and Humans o 4 times older than the MRCA for all human mtDNA variation ● ● o 600,000 ya ● CD209 (gene involved in innate immunity) 2.8 million years ago ● SO MANY MORE GRAPHS. Look at graphs o Why don’t we see older coalescence? NUCLEAR DNA? A Little Introgression o Neanderthals shared more genetic variants with present day humans in Eurasia than sub- Saharan Africa Four Forces of Evolution o Mutation ▪ Change in genetic message through changes in chromosomes or changes in DNA se...
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