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Unformatted text preview: etic Effects
▪ Monogenic- dominant, codominant, recessive
▪ Oligogenic ▪ ● ●
● Complex Traits- polygenic, age effects, gene environment interaction, gene sex
interaction, environment by sex interaction
Evolution of Human Lifestyle and Diet
o Hunter Gatherers and then Neolithic
▪ Evolutionary Hypothesis: Pandemic of obesity is caused by a profound mismatch
between humanity’s present environmental circumstances and those that have
molded evolutionary selection.
o Thrifty Genotype- 1962 James Neel
▪ Noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus is the result of a
thrifty genotype rendered
detrimental by cultural change
secretion of insulin which increases fat tissue formation and the
accumulation of an energy store.
▪ allowing ancestors to build up fat deposits in times of plenty
▪ detrimental – overproduction of insulin leads to insulin resistance, high levels of
blood glucose, and diabetes
Epigenetics- study of mechanism by which genes bring about their phenotypic effects, study of
heritable change in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of DNA
o Fetus adapts to malnutrition be decreased growth, and altered growth and function of the
o Over nutrition later in life makes this developmental adaptation disadvantageous
Biliopancreatic diversion bariatric surgery: portion of stomach removed, food you eat bypasses
much of small intestine
o Obesity has risen...
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