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IB35ACS Study Guide

Biology lecture 8 genetics some important terms

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Unformatted text preview: he DNA doesn’t have to leave the nucleus § U instead of T to match with A ·ȡ Transcription – the copying of the DNA so the RNA can move to translation ·ȡ Translation – RNA translates the copy into proteins ·ȡ Codon o The triplet code comes together to make codons which express certain amino acids ·ȡ Nucleus – where the DNA is housed ·ȡ Ribosomes – where the codons are translated into proteins ·ȡ Coding DNA – o code for proteins (genes) o Regulatory elements § the tell the coding when to begin and stop at different times of ontogeny/development § This is a critical source of variation b/c one gene can be expressed in different ways (the black dots on the fly) o Only 1.5% codes;7 the rest accounts for regulatory elements ·ȡ Mitosis Mitosis: my toes grow o Parent cell replicating DNA then split into two identical to parent cells ·ȡ Meiosis Meiosis: makes me o The E is related to sex o Parent cell replicates DNA then RECOMBINATION occurs (this is where the mass variation occurs) then they split into non- identical daughter cells ·ȡ What can go wrong? o Mutations § Silent mutation – the mutation has no effect on the protein outcome § Missense mutation – the amino acid (protein) is changing the output of the protein § Nonsense mutation – it stops the codon chain § EX. Cat ran far – original § Kat ran far – silent (remains the same) § Car ran far – missense (changes the meaning) § Cat rxn far – nonsense (stops the original mean...
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