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o ovulation in other mammals
o life histories of other apes
▪ Sexual maturity: gorillas, orangutans, chimps (6.5-
▪ Theoretical TFR: orangutans, chimps, gorillas (by least to most)
▪ small canines
▪ Pairbonding results in more provisioning & additional parental care
▪ Interpretation: they lacked visual cues as to when a female is ovulating
▪ How could all of this have affected the IBI?
“helpless baby” transtion
o secondary altriciality (brain keeps growing well after birth)
o the obstetrical dilemma: conflicting trends: transition to walking upright, bipedal, required a
decreased size of the bony birth-
canal but the trend toward increased intelligence required
a larger cranium, which would need a wider obstetrical pelvic area.
o Homo erectus: KNM WT 15000 (West Lake Turkana, Kenya)
▪ 200cc (birth), 700cc (1 year), 900cc (adult) compared to humans 380cc, 1000cc,
o Shift from hunting-
gathering to agriculture
3,000 years ago
o made possible the establishment of a non-
o agriculture now represents only 3% of US labor force
o changes in the demographics
▪ pop size increased: 6 million to 7 billion, TFRs higher in ag groups
▪ health of hunter-
gatherers was better than that of neighbor farmers (osteological
evidence), increase in juvenile skeletons (...
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- Spring '08
- The American