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Unformatted text preview: 6.3 PHYSIOLOGY OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM NEUROTRANSMITTERS 1. CHOLINERGIC All PREGANGLIONIC neurons of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions secrete ________________________________, as do AcH all POSTGANGLIONIC neurons of the parasympathetic division. 2. ADRENERGIC: Almost all POSTGANGLIONIC neurons of the _________________ sympathetic division secrete ________________________ or norepinephrine, except those epinephrine innervating thermoregulatory sweat glands (which secrete ACh). RECEPTORS: 1. CHOLINERGIC: those in membranes of ANS postganglionic neurons and in skeletal muscle cells are NICOTINIC and excitatory ; while those in effector cells of parasympathetic division are MUSCARINIC and may be either excitatory or inhibitory. 2. ADRENERGIC: those in effector cell membranes of sympathetic division; inhibitory response may be either _______________________ or ____________________ excitatory depending on the effector. 107 16.5 FUNCTIONAL GENERALIZATIONS ABOUT THE ANS 1. Which division(s) has/have stimulatory effects and which have/has inhibitory effects? Both divisions of ANS produce excitatory and inhibitory effects 2. The enteric division can be influenced by either of the other divisions of the ANS and by CNS centers, and also can act independently. 3. Describe “dual innervation” by the ANS. most organs are innervated by both divisions 4. If a single structure is innervated by both divisions their effects on the structure are usually (but not always) __________________________ to one another. opposite 5. Give an example of coordination/cooperation within the ANS. one or both divisions can coordinate the activities of different structures 6. The SYMPATHETIC division has effects that are general and are associated with _______________ or _________________ responses, while the PARASYMPATHETIC fight flight division produces localized effects and is associated with resting conditions. sympathetic divisions produce more generalized effect than parasympathetic division...
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