HIV Structure Life Cycle and Replication Lecture.ppt -...

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HIV Structure, Life Cycle, and Replication
On A new disease… By the end of 1981 , there was a cumulative total of 270 reported cases of severe immune deficiency among gay men, and 121 of those individuals had died. In 1983 , Luc Montagnier and Françoise Barré-Sinoussi reported the discovery of a new virus (later called HIV) that is the cause of AIDS. The first commercial blood test for HIV was licensed in 1985 , allowing screening of the U.S. blood supply. In 1987 the first anti-HIV drug (AZT) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The first potent combination of anti-HIV drugs became available in 1995 .
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Since the epidemic was identified in 1981, more than 60 million people have contracted HIV and nearly 30 million have died of HIV- related causes. At the end of 2011, an estimated 34 million people, an estimated 0.8% of adults aged 15-49 years worldwide, are living with HIV. 2.5 million new infections in 2011; 330,000 were children. 7,000 people contract HIV everyday, nearly 300 every hour. In 2011 alone, AIDS claimed an estimated 1.7 million lives, of which 230,000 were children. HIV primarily infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (CD4 + T cells), macrophages and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4 + T cells.
What is HIV?
To understand what HIV and AIDS are, let’s break it down: Causative agent: H – Human – This particular virus can only infect human beings. I – Immunodeficiency – HIV weakens your immune system by destroying important cells that fight disease and infection. A "deficient" immune system can't protect you. V – Virus – A virus can only reproduce itself by taking over a cell in the body of its host. What is HIV?
To understand what HIV and AIDS are, let’s break it down: Causative agent: H – Human – This particular virus can only infect human beings. I – Immunodeficiency – HIV weakens your immune system by destroying important cells that fight disease and infection. A "deficient" immune system can't protect you. V – Virus – A virus can only reproduce itself by taking over a cell in the body of its host. What is HIV? Disease: A – Acquired – AIDS is not something you inherit from your parents. You acquire AIDS after birth. I – Immuno – Your body's immune system includes all the organs and cells that work to fight off infection or disease. D – Deficiency – You get AIDS when your immune system is "deficient," or isn't working the way it should. S – Syndrome – A syndrome is a collection of symptoms and signs of disease. AIDS is a syndrome, rather than a single disease. It is a complex illness with a wide range of symptoms.
What is HIV?

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