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AIRCRAFT ASSEMBLY AND RIGGINGAMT 123
INTRODUCTIONAircraft assembly - involves the joining of various components and structures that form an entire aircraft, while Aircraft Rigging - generally refers to the positioning and alignment of an aircraft's major subassemblies to produce a synergistic design. For example, airplanes are typically fabricated in a number of major sub-assemblies, such as the fuselage or main body, an empennage or tail section, wings, landing gear, and an engine or power plant section. These components
Definition of terms1. Monocoque - A shell-like fuselage design in which the stressed outer skin is used to support the majority of imposed stresses. Monocoque fuselage design may include bulkheads but not stringers.2. Semimonocoque- A fuselage design that includes a substructure of bulkheads and/or formers, along with stringers, to support flight loads and stresses imposed on the fuselage.3. Truss type - A fuselage design made up
4. Empennage- includes the entire tail group, consisting of fixed surfaces such as the vertical stabilizer and the horizontal stabilizer. 5. Wing Rib - one of many cross pieces of the airframe that provide an aircraft wing with shape and strength. are spaced at intervals throughout the wing structure and form the shape of the leading edge, camber, and trailing edge.6. Spar- main longitudinal beam of an
Cantilever wings - all-metal wing is that it is designed to carry all of the flight loads within the structure, so it does not need any external struts or braces. Sitka Spruce – wood type which most commonly used in aircraft structure including wings and fuselage.
TRANSMITTING LIFT INTO THE STRUCTURE (wing structure)Air deflected by the wing produces the lift that supports an airplane, but lift must be transmitted into the structure in such a manner that the airplane can be balanced in every condition of flight. In addition, the structure must be built to support all of the loads without any damaging distortion. To do this, wings are mounted on an airplane in a location that places its center of lift just slightly behind the cen-ter of gravity. The center of lift is the point at which the air
TRUSS-TYPE WING CONSTRUCTIONFabric-covered airplane wirings utilize truss-type structures that have changed very little throughout the design development of aircraft. As with other wing designs, spars are the main load-carrying.
In the past, spars were mainly manufactured of wood, but the majority of modern aircraft incorporate spars fabricated from extruded aluminum alloy.
Truss-type wings, when properly assembled and rigged, provide the strong structure needed for fabric-covered wings
Wing Rib StructureIllustrations A & B are wood wing ribs while C is a wing rib made of pressed sheet metal. Note the built-up wood box spar in figure A
STRESSED-SKIN WING CONSTRUCTIONIn the same manner as the fuselage, wings generally evolved from the truss form of construction to one in which the outer skin carries the greatest amount of the stresses.