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FOUR BIG “ISMS” OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY: CONSERVATISM, LIBERALISM, ROMANTICISM AND SOCIALISM A. INTRODUCTION: THE LEGACY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION B. CONSERVATIVSM -Congress of Vienna of 1814-1815 (Austrian representative, Klemens von Metternich + Viscount Robert Castlereagh of England, Prince Talleyrand of France, Karl August von Hardenburg of Prussia, and Tsar Alexander I of Russia) -Holy Alliance: Austria, Russia and Prussia I. Religion -restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1814; Concordat of 1801 II. Science -Charles Darwin, On the Origin of the Species by the Means of Natural Selection (1859) III. State-Building and Secularization - Kulturkampf (“culture struggle”) -1870: declaration of papal infallibility C. LIBERALISM -constitutional reform, political representation, freedom -Adam Smith, Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) - laissez-faire : “to leave alone” I. Radicalizing Liberalism -1825: “Decembrist” uprising in Russia -1819: “Battle of Peterloo” in England
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HIST 102 taught by Professor Varga-harris during the Spring '08 term at Illinois State.

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