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Unformatted text preview: THE FRENCH REVOLUTION THROUGH NAPOLEON A. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION -Georges Lefebvre and Marxist interpretation of the French Revolution B. THE CRISIS OF OLD REGIME FRANCE/BACKGROUND I. Financial Crisis -Seven Years' War or the French-Indian War (1756-63) -corve: tax in kind that obliged subjects to work on roads; became a monetary tax over the course of the eighteenth century II. Tensions Within Society -Annoblis vs. hereditary nobility -1781: Segur Law passed, requiring all officers to demonstrate noble ancestry spanning 4 generations III. Political Conflicts 1) Jansenism 2) Struggle between Parlements and Monarch -Edict of Discipline (December 1770) C. THE MODERATE PHASE OF THE REVOLUTION -Assembly of Notables (1787) -Estates General: a representative assembly composed of representatives of all three estates I. Crisis of 1788 and Decision to Call the Estates General -1788: bad harvests -Grenoble and Day of the Tiles II. Meeting of the Estates General (5 May 1789) -Cahiers de dolances: lists of grievances and requests -17 June: the Third Estate declared itself to be the National Assembly III. Oath of the Tennis Court -20 June 1789: the "Oath of the Tennis Court" IV. Final Session -23 June 1789: king authorized the Estates General to meet together -Count Mirabeau -27 June: king ordered the other estates to join the National Assembly V. Revolt of the Masses and the Storming of the Bastille -14 July: "Storming of the Bastille" 2 VI. Revolution in the Countryside -July 1789: "Great Fear" in the countryside VII. Abolition of Feudalism -4 August: some liberals agree to give up their right to collect feudal dues VIII. March of the Women -5 October: "March of the Women" to Versailles -Tuileries Palace in Paris IX. Reforms of the National Assembly (Liberal/Constitutional Revolution) -27 August 1789: "Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen" issued -June 1791: new Constitution; officially adopted in September -Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Prigord (Talleyrand) -November 1789: National Assembly voted to expropriate Church lands to raise money -July 1790: Civil Constitution of the Clergy -refractories or non-juring priests: priests who did not take the oath of Constitution D. RADICALIZATION AND COUNTER-REVOLUTION, 1792-1794 -10 August 1792: insurrection that led to the overthrow of the monarchy, the imprisonment of the king, the suspension of the Constitution of 1791, and the creation of a new legislative assembly I. Actions of the King -20 June 1791: Flight to Varennes II. Revolutionary Political Culture -Jacobins and Maximilien Robespierre -Girondins III. Politicization of the Working Poor of Paris -sans-culottes: "without breeches" -sections: wards created in Paris in 1790, each with a political assembly in which all citizens could participate, and with a national guard battalion -Commune of Paris: an assembly that served as the municipal government of Paris, elected through the sections IV. Counter-Revolution -migrs, refractory priests, people hostile to the Revolution 3 V. War -August 1791: Declaration of Pillnitz, issued by Habsburg Emperor Leopold II and the Prussian Frederick William II -April 1792: French Declaration of War against Austria -10 August 1792: insurrection and the calling of the National Convention E. TERROR (September 1793 to July 1794) -Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety -the Vende -21 September 1792: first meeting of National Convention, in Tuileries -"the Mountain" vs. the Girondins -25 September 1792: France proclaimed a Republic -Constitution of 1793 -Enrags and Society of Revolutionary Republican Women -2 June 1793: Girondins purged from the Convention and declared "enemies of the people" -Federalist Revolt -Spring and Summer of 1793: Civil War in the Vende -April 1793: Committee of Public Safety -Jean-Jacques Rousseau and concept of "general will" -April 1793: leve en masse (mobilization of the entire French population for the war effort) -5 September 1793: the Convention decreed, "Terror is the order of the day" -17 September: Law of Suspects -October 1793: Queen Marie Antoinette executed -October through November 1793: women's clubs and other political associations outlawed -29 September: Law of the Maximum F. THERMIDOR AND THE DIRECTORY, 1794-1799 I. Execution of Robespierre -28 July: Robespierre and supporters guillotined II. The Thermidorean Reaction (July 1794-1795) -Thermidor: name of month July-August (the Revolutionaries had reordered time and created a new calendar) -jeunesse dore: "Gilded Youth" -Constitution of 1795 III. The Directory -9 November 1799: coup d'tat occurred in Brumaire; troops loyal to Napoleon assisted in the coup in Paris -1800: Consulate as new form of government G. NAPOLEONIC PERIOD (1800-1815) THE "RETURN TO NORMALCY" -1801: Concordat restored the Catholic Church in France -1804: Napoleonic Code or Code Napolon -Bank of France 4 -1812: France defeated by Russia -October 1813: Battle of Leipzig Napoleon defeated by a coalition of Russia, Prussia, Austria, England, Spain, and various German states -1814: "allies" invaded France -26 April 1814: Napoleon forced to abdicate and restricted to Elba -Hundred Days: Napoleon re-established his rule but was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815, and exiled to the Island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died on 5 May 1821 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HIST 102 taught by Professor Varga-harris during the Spring '08 term at Illinois State.

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