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Unformatted text preview: RENAISSANCE EUROPE A. BACKDROP -14 th C. to middle of the 15 th C: plague (beginning in 1347); Hundred Years War (1337 through 1437); the rise of the Ottoman Empire (1453: fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire); economic contraction; papal schism; and religious persecution B. PAPACY VS. HERETICS-benefices: properties or income that supported clerical positions -curia: papal government -1378: death of Pope Gregory XI in 1378 -schism: Urban VI, a Roman vs. Clement VII of Avignon -1409: Council of Pisa and emergence of third pope: Alexander V (succeeded by John XXIII) -Hussitism in Bohemian led by Jan Hus; countered by assembly in Constance in 1414, which decided Hus be burned at the stake -Martin V became the new pope, ending the Great Schism -1348-1350: anti-Semitic persecutions -1494: Queen Isabella of Castille and King Ferdinand of Aragon, husband and wife ruling Spain, declared Catholic monarchs in recognition of their crusade (1478-1492) against...
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