Zimmar Physics Accelarator Notes-16.pdf - pp and ep...

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'70 '80 '90 2000 E cm (GeV) ISR Hera RHIC(pp) Tevatron LHC SppS 10 2 10 1 10 3 10 4 10 5 Year 1–2006 8355A20 '60 '70 '80 '90 2000 AdA LEP PEP Doris SPEAR DCI Adone ACO VEPP–2 CEA CBX VEPP–4 CESR VEPP–2M PEPII KEKB 10 0 10 1 10 –1 10 2 10 3 Year SLC Petra Tristan VEP–1 BEPC Da φ n e Lepton Colliders pp and ep Colliders Figure 2: Colliders over the years. using electrostatic separators to provide separa- tion of the beams except at the two IPs. Future colliders are likely to be either lin- ear colliders using e and e + to avoid high synchrotron radiation losses or storage rings us- ing muons to get to the highest collision ener- gies. Electrons and muons are constituent parti- cles while only the quarks in hadrons are the con- stituent particles with only a fraction of the total hadron energy. It is the collision energy of the constituent particles that can access new particles. References [1] D. Kerst et al, PR 102 (1956) 590; G.K. O’Neill, PR 102 (1956) 1418 [2] K. Johnsen, Proc. 8th Int. Conf. on High Energy Acc. (1971) p.79; CERN AR/Int. SG/64-9 Design Study of ISR (1964) [3] M. Tigner, Nuovo Cimento 37 (1965) 1228 [4] ILC Reference Design Report: . linearcollider.org/rdr draft v1.pdf (2007) [5] CLIC Design Report: CERN-OPEN-2008-021 (CLIC-Note-764) (2008) [6] T. Kageyama, Super KEKB, PANIC 05 Proceed- ings, p.589 (2005) [7] Super B Conceptual Design Report (2007): 1.6.4 Cyclotron H. Blosser, Michigan St. U. M. Craddock, U. British Columbia & TRIUMF Earliest [1] and most numerous of circular accel- erators, cyclotrons are characterized by magnetic field and accelerating rf frequency which are con- stant in time (c.w.). (Synchrocyclotrons are ex- ceptions. See later.) Cyclotrons are often referred to by the diam- eter of the magnet pole (e.g. 27 inch, 184 , 2 me- ter, U-400). More recently “K”, ( proton kinetic energy in MeV) has become a designation (e.g. K500, K1200) particularly for multi-particle cy- clotrons where the energy for an ion of charge Qe and mass Am 0 (where m 0 is 1/12 of mass of 12 C, m 0 c 2 = 931.48 MeV) is given nonrelativistically by E = KQ 2 /A . The maximum bending power ( ) is related to K by K = (

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