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THE RISE OF “TOTALITARIAN” STATES: NAZISM IN GERMAN AND STALINISM IN THE SOVIET UNION A. INTRODUCTION B. WHAT IS TOTALITARIANISM? -Benito Mussolini; Acerbo Law -Italian journalist Giovanni Amendola: “totalitarian” system - Volk (German): “the people” C. FASCISM IN ITALY - Squadristi : the Fascist militia, the Black Shirts (a paramilitary organization similar to the Freikorps ) -October 1922: March on Rome -Prime Minister Luigi Facta; King Victor Emmanuel III -1924 national elections: Fascists received 65 percent of the vote - Duce : leader of a one-party state -1929: Lateran Agreement between the government and the church D. GERMANY AND “NATIONAL SOCIALISM” I. Hitler’s Rise to the Leadership of Germany -1923: the “Beer Hall Putsch” in Munich - Mein Kampf ( My Struggle ) – Hitler’s anti-Semitic treatise -press mogul Alfred Hugenberg -Joseph Goebbels, Nazi propaganda chief -Swastika -Reichstag elections -January 1933: elite leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to name Hitler
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