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Unformatted text preview: THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION A. INTRODUCTION: THE ORIGINS OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION-Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) in physics -Ptolemy (90-168) in astronomy -Galen in medicine (129-200/210/216 C.E.) -scientific method: a means of understanding based on systematic observation of natural phenomena and experimentation regarding their causes and effects -Archimedes (287-212 B.C.E.) helped inspire new ideas about physics -alchemy: belief that matter could be understood and transformed by mixing substances and using secret formulas -astrology: suggested that natural phenomena could be predicted if planetary movements were properly interpreted -fascination with technological invention -anatomists experimenting at the University of Padua B. NEW DISCOVERIES: CELESTIAL BODIES I. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)- On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543) -heliocentrism and sun-centered universe II. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)-laws of planetary motion: mathematical evidence to support heliocentrism (published in 1609...
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