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Inorganic Lecture 3

Inorganic Lecture 3 - Bonding Models Lewis Dot Structures...

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1 Bonding Models Lewis Dot Structures Hybridization Valence Bond Theory (VSEPR) Molecular Orbital Theory (Later) Lewis Diagrams Represents an approximate arrangement of atoms and the location of all valence electrons within the structure Some general guidelines and intuition
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2 Under Most Circumstances…. A simple and symmetrical geometry is correct Atoms that are present only once within a substance tend of reside at the center of the structure Metals tend to be central atoms O is commonly peripheral H is always peripheral Under Most Circumstances…. e - s are arranged so as to give an octet of e - s to each nonhydrogen atom (some exceptions) 4 steps 1. Sum up the valence electrons 2. Use a pair electrons to form a bond between each pair of bound atoms 3. Arrange the remaining e - s to satisfy the duet rule for H and the octet rule for second-row elements 4. Consider formal charges.
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3 Formal Charges Review this from your Gen. Chem. book Punch line = try to achieve formal charges as close to zero as possible If they can not all be zero then put the negative formal charges on the most electronegative atoms Help with Step 3 2 nd row - C, N, O, F - always assume octet 2 nd row- B, Be - can have fewer than 8 e - s 3 rd row and heavier often have 8 or 18 Electron deficient molecule - the available valence e - are used before an octet is achieved for each nonhydrogen atom Valence Shell Expansion - occurs where valence level d-orbitals become available (3rd row and lower)
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4 Some Examples for Practice HF CH 4 NH 3 NO + BeCl 2 PCl 5 CN - What’s Next? Now that we can draw Lewis Structure we have some questions to ask ourselves How exactly are the e - s between two atoms shared? Which orbitals on the two atoms are involved? What is the overall geometry of the molecule?
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