Unformatted text preview: mainly due to
formation damage which can occur
anywhere in production system: well
bore, perforations, reservoir.
–Mineral acids: hydrochloric and
hydrofluoric acids. HCl
Carbonate mixture for sandstones.
–Organic acids: mainly acetic and
formic acids. Lower corrosivity and
easier inhibition @high T.
–Powdered acids: sulfamic and
choloroacetic acids. Easy to transport
to remote locations.
–Retarded acids: Allows the chemical
reactions to take place @right time
Hydraulic fracturing: Injection of
fluids and other materials into the
well at rates capable of fracturing
reservoir formations. Includes acid
fracturing ,water, acids, special
polymer gels, and
proppants(sand…)are injected to
create and fill fractures to keep them
open or creation of acid channels
-Properties of a Fracturing Fluid:
1)compatible with the formation rock
2) compatible with the formations
fluids 3) capable of suspending
proppants and transporting them
deep into the fracture
4)capable(viscosity) to develop
necessary fracture width to accept
proppants or allow deep penetration
of acid 5) efficient fluid (i.e. have low
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This document was uploaded on 03/13/2014 for the course PNG 475 at Penn State.
- Spring '12