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REED 3310 Lecture 191Lecture 19: Hippocampus-Independent MemoryAlthough considerable emphasis mustbe placed on the hippocampus and themedial temporal lobe memory systemwhen we talk about memory, it wouldbe a mistake to think that all memoryfunctions are supported by thosestructures. Although mostneuroscientific memory research is directed at understanding the precise role that the hippocampusplays in memory functions, many other areas of the brain exhibit synaptic plasticity and supportdistinctly different types of memory functions compared to the hippocampus.This lecture concentrates on several forms of memory that can be described as hippocampus-independent because they do not rely on the involvement of the hippocampus or other medialtemporal lobe memory structures. Well consider four types ofhippocampus-independent memory:non-associative memory, a simple form of classical conditioning, perceptual memory, and proceduralmemory. Although each of these four types of memory is associated with a different set of brainstructures, they all have one thing in common - they are not measured by asking people to accessmemory contents.When hippocampal memory is assessed, we use direct memory tests. Such tests require organismsto access retained facts in order to demonstrate memory. By contrast, performance ofindirectmemory testsdoes not depend upon ones ability to access factual information. Instead, indirecttests provide evidence of memory when people behave one way when something has been learnedbut behave a different way when nothing has been learned. That is, the existence of memory isimplied by behavioral change, not by successful conscious retrieval of facts. If this description of thenature of indirect memory tests seems confusing, don’t worry, you’re about toread about plenty ofexamples that should make things clear.NON-ASSOCIATIVE MEMORYLet’s begin by talking about non-associative memory. As the name suggests, non-associativememory does not involve the formation of new stimulus-response or stimulus-stimulus associations.Instead, non-associative learning involves changes in reactivity that are not accompanied by newassociative links. The two best examples of non-associative learning aresensitizationandhabituation.As you know, some behavioral responses are considered reflexive because they involve unlearnedresponses to specific sorts of stimuli. For example, people startle when they hear an unexpected loudsound, and the intensity of the startle can be measured as increases in heart rate, increases in skin
REED 3310 Lecture 192conductance due to sweat production, or as the height to which they jump. Furthermore, we cancompare the intensity of the startle response in two different conditions. First, we can note the degreeof startle when we simply present the startling stimulus. Alternatively, we can note the degree ofstartle after a generally arousing stimulus, like an electrical shock, has been presented. When we

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