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Unformatted text preview: chers formally discussed missing addends,
and all 4 produced perfect papers. The hypothesis that children become
able to read missing-addend problems without specific instruction was thus
This study exemplifies the arrow in Figure 2.1 labeled “Comprehends
(reads).” Those at a high level of abstraction can get higher-level meaning from
an equation than children at a low level of abstraction. When we read, we rep
resent meaning to ourselves. Written signs do not represent by themselves.
The following study further explains many first graders’ difficulty in reading
Kamii and Ozaki’s Study (1999). In a study involving 204 first graders in six public
schools in the United States and Japan, I (CK) wrote “4 + 2 =” in front of the
child in individual interviews. Almost none of them had trouble writing the cor
rect answer, as the interviews took place during the second half of the school
year. I then stood a doll in front of the child and provided him or her with about Figure 2.10. The group test with missing-addend pro...
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This document was uploaded on 03/13/2014.
- Spring '14