The Science of Child Development Chapter 1 MODULE 1.1 o Plato and Aristotle wrote about ideal forms of government o They believed schools and parents were responsible for teaching children self control that makes them effective citizens o Aristotle worried that too much self discipline would stile children’s initiative and individuality o Plato believed experience is Not the source of knowledge but human senses are too fallible o He believed children are born with an innate knowledge of concrete objects o Aristotle says however it is rooted in perceptual experiences o John Locke the human infant is a Tabula Rasa (Blank Slate) parents should instruct, reward and discipline children and believe experiences effect our development o Jean Jacques Rousseau said new born have an innate sense of justice and morality that unfolds as we grown o Through this unfolding we move through the development stages, which are infancy, childhood and adolescence. He also says parents should be responsive and receptive to a child’s needs o In the industrial revolution children was seen as grown ups and were doing labor more suited for adults o After Darwin’s evolution theory he wrote baby biographies that observed individual children with lead to objective and analytic research o G Stanley Hall he conducted studies to look at age trends and children’s beliefs and feeling s o Frank Alfred Binet – devised first mental tests o James Baldwin had the first Canadian psychology lab o Baldwin moved from observation to experiment o The Canadian psychological association was founded o Scientific forces in developmental psychology came together and the Society for Research in Child Development formed
o It consisted of psychologists, biologists and educators and physicians, still intact today o Their research helps to improve children’s lives today o Stopped in world war 2 because of assistance in war efforts o New branch of child development research it was the Applied Developmental Science – research that promotes healthy development in valuable children and families o Still helps today when making government policies o Origins form 100 years ago has become a matured discipline MODULE 1.2 o There are five major theoretical perspectives in child development research: biological, psychodynamic, learning, cognitive-developmental and contextual perspectives o One of the first biological theories – maturational theory – was proposed by Arnold Gesell – child development reflects a specific and prearranged scheme or plan within the body (speech, play and reasoning is all natural) o Ethological theory views development from an evolutionary perspective (many behaviors are adaptive, and a critical period in development is the time when a specific type of learning can take place; anytime before or after makes learning difficult or impossible) o Example of this critical period was tested by Konrad Lorenz who noticed that newly
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- Fall '13