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Unformatted text preview: Congress to pass a law allowing the people to directly propose and enact laws through initiative and to approve or reject any act or law or part of it passed by Congress or a local legislative body (Sec. 32, Article VI). 3. Provides that the right of the people and their organizations to participate at all levels of social, political, and economic decision‐making shall not be abridged and that the State shall, by law, facilitate the establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms (Sec. 16, Article XIII). 4. Provides that subject to the enactment of an implementing law, the people may directly propose amendments to the Constitution through initiative (Sec. 2, Article XVII). i. FREEDOM OF RELIGION Q: What are the two guarantees contained in Sec. 5 Article III of the 1987 Constitution? A: 1. Non‐establishment clause; 2. Free exercise clause, or the freedom of religious profession and worship 1. Non‐establishment Clause Q: What is the non‐establishment clause? A: The non‐establishment clause states that the State cannot: 1. Set up a church 2. Pass laws which aid one or all religions or prefer one over another 3. Influence a person to go to or stay away from church against his will 4. Force him to profess a belief or disbelief in any religion 2. Free‐Exercise Clause Q: What are the aspects of freedom of religious profession and worship? A: These are the right to believe, which is absolute, and the right to act on one’s belief, which is subject to regulation. Q: Give some exceptions to the non‐ establishment clause as held by jurisprudence. A: 1. Tax exemption on property actually, directly and exclusively used for religious purposes; 2. Religious instruction in public schools: a. At the option of parents/guardians expressed in writing; b. Within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by religious authorities of the religion to which the children belong; c. Without additional costs to the government; 3. Financial support for priest, preacher, minister, or dignitary assigned to the armed forces, penal institution or government orphanage or leprosarium; 4. Government sponsorship of town fiestas, some purely religiou...
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