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Unformatted text preview: publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each member." 4. Section 17, Article XI provides: sworn statement of assets, liabilities and net worth of the President, the Vice‐President, the Members of the Cabinet, the Congress, the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Commission and other constitutional offices, and officers of the armed forces with general or flag rank filed upon their assumption of office shall be disclosed to the public in the manner provided by law. 5. Section 21, Article XII declares: "Information on foreign loans obtained or guaranteed by the government shall be made available to the public." Note: These provisions on public disclosures are intended to enhance the role of the citizenry in governmental decision‐making as well as in checking abuse in government. (Valmonte vs. Belmonte, G.R. No. 74930, Feb. 13, 1989) Q: What is the Doctrine of Incorporation? A: It means that the rules of International law form part of the law of the land and no legislative action is required to make them applicable in a country. By this doctrine, the Philippines is bound by generally accepted principles of international law, which are considered to be automatically part of our own laws. (Tañada v. Angara, G.R. No. 118295, May 2, 1997) Q: What is the Doctrine of Auto‐limitation? A: It is the doctrine where the Philippines adhere to principles of international law as a limitation to the exercise of its sovereignty. Note: The fact that the international law has been made part of the law of the land does not by any means imply the primacy of international law over national law in the municipal sphere. (Philip Morris, Inc. v. CA, G.R. No. 91332, July 16, 1993) Q: What is meant by the principle of Civilian Supremacy? A: The civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. 12 Q: How is civilian supremacy ensured? A: 1. By the installation of the President, the highest civilian authority, as the commander‐
in‐chief of all the armed forces of the Philippines. (Sec. 18, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution) 2. Through the requirement that me...
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