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Unformatted text preview: plicable law. As a general rule, penal laws should not have retroactive application, lest they acquire the character of an ex post facto law. An exception to this rule, however, is when the law is advantageous to the accused. Although an additional fine of P15,000.00 is imposed by R.A. 8294, the same is still advantageous to the accused, considering that the imprisonment is lowered to prision correccional in its maximum period from reclusion temporal in its maximum period to reclusion perpetua under P.D. 1866. Hence, R.A. 8294 should be applied, without prejudice to the application of the Indeterminate Sentence Law. (Valeroso v. People, G.R. No. 164815, Feb. 22, 2008) POLITICAL LAW TEAM: ADVISER: ATTY. EDWIN REY SANDOVAL; SUBJECT HEAD: RACHEL MARIE L. FELICES; ASST. SUBJECT HEADS: WIVINO E. BRACERO II & HERAZEUS CHRISTINE Y. UY; MEMBERS: LAWRENCE PAULO H. AQUINO, LEANDRO RODEL V. ATIENZA, MARINETH EASTER AN D. AYOS, CARLO R. BALA, WILFREDO T. BONILLA, JR., KEEL ACHERNAR R. DINOY, APRIL V. ENRILE, KENNETH JAMES CARLO C. HIZON, JOSE MARIA G. MENDOZA, ROGER CHRISTOPHER R. REYES, ROMILINDA C. SIBAL, JASMIN M. SISON, ZARAH PATRICIA T. SUAREZ, RALPH JULIOUS L. VILLAMOR. CITIZENSHIP H. CITIZENSHIP Q: What is citizenship? A: It is membership in a political community which is personal and more or less permanent in character. Q: What are the modes of acquiring citizenship? A: 1. By birth 1. Jus sanguinis – acquisition of citizenship on the basis of blood relationship. 2. Jus soli – acquisition of citizenship on the basis of the place of birth. 2. By naturalization – the legal act of adopting an alien and clothing him with the privilege of a native‐born citizen. 3. By marriage Note: Jus sanguinis and naturalization are the modes followed in the Philippines. Q: Can there be judicial declaration that a person is a Filipino citizen? Why? A: No. He has to apply for naturalization and adduce evidence of his qualifications. (Yung Uan Chu v. Republic, G.R. No. L‐34973, A...
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