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1Study Guide – Events Leading Up to Civil War- November 27 -Historiography of Events Leading Up to the Civil War – 1930s-•Few books secession crisis; Dwight Lowell Dumond’s The Secession Movement, 1860-1861(1931) - statement pro-secession constitutional argument acknowledgement centrality slave controversy; challenged Progressive historians who said war caused economic conflict. •War could have been avoided, but Northerners rejected compromise, cotton-state leaders no choice but secede.•Focuses Gulf rather than Upper S. states; many studies Secession Lower S. rather than Upper S. since states seceded Union first. Historiography Secession – 1970s-•Scholars secession Deep South, but 1974 - Steven Channing’s Crisis of Fear: Secession in South Carolina - American attitudes race & slavery shifted profoundly & historians’ views war’s causes. •Dumond rational defense S. constitutional principles while Channing vivid portrait racial hysteria: John Brown’s raid & rumors slave plots & uprisings; Republican victory 1860 sparked panicked response SC whites drove state out Union. Recent Historiography on Secession –•William Freehling’s Secessionists Triumphant 1854-1861(2007)-volume 2 The Road to Disunionnot dispute Channing’s emphasis racial fears, but emphasis individual agency. •Propaganda & political goals S. radicals role fire-eaters Robert Rhett & William Yancey played upon racial & economic fears S. whites to precipitate secession. •Charles Dew’s Apostles of Disunion: Southern Secession Commissioners and the Causes of the Civil War(2001) bridges gap Lower & Upper South, analyzing arguments Deep South secessionists who lured Upper South new confederacy; Deep South commissioners presented Upper South vision “the dawning of an abominable new world in the South,” a world in which destruction slavery era racial equality, race war, & racial amalgamation Tensions Emerge – Wilmot Proviso -
2•After Mexican – American War new gold rushes CO/ silver NV Comstock Lode; N & S different visions W. – southerners place expand slavery while N. ideal place free labor. •Wilmot Proviso – debate slavery territories; PA representative Wilmot Congress ban slavery lands Mexican American War since Mexicans abolished slavery; N. supported – some moral reasons but free labor ideology or fear S. slaveholder political power. •N. W. land to themselves & did not want blacks settling farms – Wilmot Proviso “white man’s proviso”; John Calhoun - Congress no authority exclude slavery W. since territories joint common property & people migrate property.•Democrat Senator Lewis Cass MI – doctrine popular sovereignty people territories decide themselves fate slavery – ambiguous territorial issues 1848. An Election of Divisions – Election of 1848 -•Factions both parties 1840s; Anti – slavery N. Democrats challenged pro- slavery expansionists under President Polk.