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Lecture9_Ch7_Attention_Memory_x3

Media portrayal of coma patient john doe anterograde

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Unformatted text preview: ire event that never occurred? Eileen Franklin- Lipsker George Franklin False Memory Loftus & Pickrell (1995): “Lost in the Mall” 25% of participants falsely report the event to be true! Has been recreated with implausible events such as spilling a punch bowl or being carried away by Goofy – still approximately 25% of participants create a false memory ▪ Does not occur if you suggest a particularly “sensitive” memory such as receiving an enema (Pezedek & Hodge, (1999) False Memory Theories of False Memory/Misinformation Effects Overwriting Hypothesis ▪ Is the old memory replaced by the new memory? Coexistence/Reduced Accessibility Hypothesis ▪ Is the old memory fighting for activation with the new memory? False Memory Theories of False Memory/Misinformation Effects No Impairment Hypothesis ▪ Do we say what we think others want to hear? (Social Demands) ▪ What if some information was never encoded in the first place? Do we rely on recently heard misinformation? Source Monitoring Hypothesis ▪ We remember information, we just have difficultly determining whether it was experienced information or the information we heard later Eyewitness Memory Jennifer Thompson- Cannino Ronald Cotton Bobby Poole Eyewitness Memory Incorrect eyewitness identification is the leading cause of wrongful convictions in the United States it has played a role in 75% of convictions that have been overturned due to DNA evidence Research has shown that juries hesitate to convict on circumstantial evidence alone – addition of eyewitness testimony makes the conviction significantly more likely Ryan Ferguson Eyewitness Memory There are several variables that can affect eyewitness accuracy Estimator Variables – factors related to the witness, perpetrator, or event itself System Variables – factors that are in the control of the criminal justice system Eyewitness Memory Estimator variables Age Race Weapons focus Eyewitness Memory Age – Are children reliable eyewitnesses? the justice system’s views of child witnesses has changed “Daycare cases” of 1980’s revealed the need for research on child’s ability to give reliable testimony Kelly Michaels Wee Care Nursery School Eyewitness Memory Age Under certain circumstances children’s accuracy in reporting is comparable to adults ▪ Especially about “central” aspects of an event ▪ Research has identified several factors related to children’s accuracy ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Question Type Timing of interview Exposure to misinformation Emotional valence of interviewer ▪ Even under ideal circumstances children tend to report less information than adults Eyewitness Memory Race Cross Race Effect/Other Race Effect (ORE) – the phenomenon of witnesses remembering own race faces with greater accuracy than faces from other races ▪ Identification of own race faces is associated with more correct identifications and less false positives Eyewitness Memory Race Three common explanations for the ORE ▪ Attitudes: Less racist = less prone to ORE ▪ Not supported by empirical research ▪ Physiognomic Homogeneity: Some races have fewer distinctions in features ▪ “All _______ look alike!” ▪ Not supported by empirical research ▪ Interracial Contact: You recognize the races that you are more familiar with ▪ Supported by empirical research ▪ Children in interracial communities vs. segre...
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