Working memory ltm longer duration far greater

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Unformatted text preview: p; over Deep Processing   elaborative rehearsal ▪ encoding in a more meaningful fashion Memories are Based on Meaning Schemas – cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, and use information   the more meaningful the “chunks” the better they will be remembered we make chunking decisions based on schemas ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ guide our attention  fill in holes  interpret meaning overlook inconsistent information Potential Problems? It’s Stored! Now How Do I Find It? Node – unit of information; not physical realities NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE Network Association Networks How Do We Form “Strong” Memories? Retrieval Practice makes perfect   Benefits of tests! ▪ students who studied by taking a test remembered information significantly better than “traditional studying” or concept maps. ▪ try studying for your exams by ▪ creating questions for each other ▪ turning section headings into questions and try to answer them without looking at the notes ▪ pp. 310- 311 in the book offers EXCELLENT study strategies Retrieval Cues Retrieval Cue – anything that helps a person retrieve information stored in LTM Recall vs. Recognition Recall What is the capital of New Jersey? Recognition What is the capital of New Jersey? a)  Sacramento b)  Memphis c)  Trenton d)  Dallas Retrieval Cues Encoding Specificity Principle – any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience that later triggers memory for the experience Context- Dependent Memory State- Dependent Memory Retrieval Strategies Mnemonics – learning aids, strategies, and devices that improve recall through the use of retrieval cues ROY G BIV   Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally ▪ mathematical order of operations (parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction) Keep Papers Coming Or Fail General Science ▪ taxonomy of living things (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species HOMES (great lakes) ▪ Huron ▪ Ontario ▪ Michigan ▪ Erie ▪ Superior Outline What is memory? Role of Attention Memory Maintenance Organization Retrieval Long- term memory systems explicit (episodic/semantic) Implicit (procedural) prospective When memory fails forgetting distortion eyewitness memory false memories Types of Long- Term Memory Long- Term Memory (LTM) – the relatively permanent storage of information Composed of several systems Old View: Memories differed in strength and accessibility, but all memories were generally the same Current View: Memory is not one entity; it is a process involving interacting systems that share a common function – retain and use information 3 Types of Long- Term Memory Explicit (declarative) Episodic Semantic Implicit Procedural Prospective Explicit LTM Explicit Memory – the systems underlying conscious memory retrieving information “we know” two types Explicit LTM Episodic – Memory for one’s personal past experience e.g., Your 16th birthday Semantic – Memory for facts separate from one’s personal experience e.g., George Washington was the first president Implicit LTM Implicit Memory – The system underlying unconscious memory Cannot put these memories into words ▪ e.g., Riding a bike; tying your shoes Procedural Memory – A type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits ▪ Very resistant to decay! Prospective LTM Prospective...
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2014 for the course PSC 001 taught by Professor P during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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