Lecture9_Ch7_Attention_Memory_x3

And use information 3 types of long term memory

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Unformatted text preview: Memory – Remembering to do something at some future time Involves both automatic and controlled processes Takes up cognitive resources leaving less space in working memory Outline When memory fails What is memory? Role of Attention forgetting Memory distortion Maintenance eyewitness memory false memories Organization Retrieval Long- term memory systems explicit (episodic/semantic) Implicit (procedural) prospective When memory fails Forgetting – The inability to retrieve memory from long- term storage Not being able to forget is maladaptive! Types of forgetting: ▪ transience ▪ absentmindedness ▪ blocking ▪ persistence (opposite of forgetting) ▪ amnesia Forgetting Transience – Forgetting over time Old View: Transience occurs due to decay (which does occasionally happen) Current View: Transience occurs due to interference from other information Two types of interference Proactive Retroactive Forgetting Proactive Interference – old information inhibits the ability to remember new information  Retroactive Interference – new information inhibits the ability to remember old information Forgetting Blocking – The temporary inability to remember something that is known Commonly referred to as “blanking” or on the “tip of your tongue” Believed to be caused by interference of words that are similar in some way Tends to occur more frequently with age Forgetting Absentmindedness – the inattentive or shallow encoding of information and/or events major cause is failing to pay attention can occur when mind goes on “autopilot” Forgetting Persistence – the continual reoccurrence of unwanted memories the opposite of forgetting; you cannot forget Ex: PTSD Forgetting Amnesia – a deficit in LTM resulting from disease, brain injury, or psychological trauma in which the individual loses the ability to retrieve vast quantities of information from LTM Retrograde – lose past memories ▪ Ex. Media portrayal of coma patient “John Doe” Anterograde – lose ability to make new memories ▪ e.g., H.M. Distortion Distortion of memory happens in 3 ways: Memory bias Flashbulb memories Source misattribution Distortion Memory bias – the changing of memories over time so they are consistent with current knowledge, beliefs, or attitudes People often recreate memories to be: Consistent with their current beliefs Place themselves in prominent roles Put themselves in the best light Distortion Flashbulb memories – vivid episodic memories for the circumstances in which people first learned of a surprising, consequential, or emotionally arousing event Neisser & Harsch (1993): Challenger explosion Personal salience is associated with accuracy; New Yorkers remember 9/11/01 attacks with greater accuracy (Hirsch et al, 2009) Distortion Source Misattribution – occurs when people misremember the time, place, person, or circumstances involved with a memory aka Source Monitoring Errors e.g., False Fame Effect; Cryptomnesia False Memory Is it possible to create a memory for an ent...
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2014 for the course PSC 001 taught by Professor P during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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