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Power of distraction cocktail party eect you can focus

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Unformatted text preview: re talking about you at the expense of following your original conversation Selective listening (shadow task) Selective Attention: Filter theory Filter theory: people have a limited capacity for sensory info people screen incoming info to let only the most important material through ▪ important social information passes the filter ▪ convey emotion (e.g. angry face = possible threat) ▪ faces (esp. angry faces) are prioritized to pass through the filter more so than non- threatening stimuli Selective Attention (Visual) We do not consciously process unattended visual stimuli  Change blindness: a failure to notice large changes in one’s environment Inattentional blindness: failure to notice something that is fully obvious when your attention is focused on something else Change Blindness 50 % of people do not realize they are talking to a different person! Inattentional Blindness Outline When memory fails What is memory? Role of Attention forgetting Memory distortion Maintenance Organization Retrieval Long- term memory systems explicit Implicit prospective eyewitness memory false memories Atkinson- Shiffrin model (1968) 1. Sensory Memory Sensory Memory – a temporary memory system closely tied to the sensory systems lasts only a fraction of a second information changed into neural impulses 2. Short- Term Memory (now: Working Memory) Short- Term Memory (STM) – storage system that briefly holds limited information in awareness Working Memory (WM) – active processing system that keeps information available for current use 2. Short- Term/Working Memory Information is kept in STM for 20- 30 seconds Must actively use information or bring it back again X C J Q R T 2. Short- Term/Working Memory X C J Q R T Now count backwards by threes from 309 (e.g. 309, 306, 303, ...) What letters were previously presented? Memory Strategies Memory Span – STM can only hold a limited amount of information 7 + 2 Chunking – organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember Memory Strategies UTPHDNYUMAUCLABAMIT UT PHD NYU MA UCLA BA MIT UT NYU UCLA MIT PHD MA BA 3. Long- Term Memory Long- Term Memory (LTM) – the relatively permanent storage of information “hard drive”   limitless capacity cannot be erased (?) LTM v. Working memory LTM longer duration far greater capacity Evidence they are in fact different: serial position effect ▪ the ability to recall items from a list depends on order of presentation, with items presented early or late in the list remembered better than those in the middle Serial Position Effect LTM v. Working memory LTM longer duration far greater capacity Evidence they are in fact different: serial position effect H.M. !!!! ▪ much of his LTM was in tact, semantic knowledge in tact, but POOR working memory How are Memories Stored? LTM storage is based on meaning Levels of Processing Model ▪ the more deeply an item is encoded, the more meaning it has, ergo it is better remembered ▪ shallow processing ▪ deep processing How are Memories Stored? Shallow Processing accuracy by encoding maintenance rehearsal ▪ repeating over &am...
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