Lecture15_Ch14_PsychDisorders_x3

Delusions 2 hallucinaons 3 disorganized speech 4

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Unformatted text preview: elusions – falsely held beliefs based on incorrect interpreta;on of reality ✦ Persist despite clear contradictory evidence ✦ Tend to be culture- specific ✦ Hallucina7ons – false sensory percep;ons that occur without a real external source ✦ Oben auditory, but can be other sensory modali;es ✦ See ac;va;on during auditory hallucina;ons in same cor;cal regions as in normal popula;on during inner speech task Schizophrenia – Diagnosis (Positive Symptoms) Schizophrenia – Diagnosis (Positive Symptoms) ✦ Disorganized speech – speech that is incoherent, fails to follow typical conversa;onal structure, & shibs topics quickly ✦ May involve clang associa&ons, or the stringing together of words that rhyme but are unrelated ✦ Oben display inappropriate emo;ons while speaking ✦ Disorganized behavior – behavior that is unusual, including bizarre physical movement paperns, strange speech, & inappropriate self- care ✦ May display catatonic behavior, a decreased responsiveness to the environment Schizophrenia – Diagnosis (Negative Symptoms) ✦ Nega7ve symptoms – deficits in behavior, such as apathy, a flat affect, & slowed speech and/or movement ✦ More common in men ✦ Associated w/ a poorer outcome ✦ Respond less to medica;on & treatment than do posi;ve symptoms Schizophrenia – Causes ✦ Gene;c ✦ Higher rate of rare DNA muta;ons Schizophrenia – Causes ✦ Brain ✦ Excess dopamine ✦ Glutamate dysfunc;on ✦ Enlargement of lateral ventricles, frontal, & temporal lobes ✦ Environment ✦ Prenatal infec;on ✦ Malnutri;on ✦ Birth complica;ons Personality Disorders ✦ Characterized by a long- las;ng approach to social interac;on that is in some way maladap;ve & causes problems in social & work environments ✦ DSM- 5 divides personality disorders into 3 clusters: 1. Cluster A: Odd or eccentric behavior ✦ Paranoid; Schizoid; Schizotypal 2. Cluster B: Drama7c, emo7onal, or erra7c behavior ✦ Histrionic; Narcissis;c; Borderline; An;social 3. Cluster C: Anxious or fearful behavior ✦ Avoidant; Dependent; Obsessive- compulsive Personality Disorders - Borderline ✦ Borderline personality disorder – characterized by a disturbance in personal iden&ty, in affect, & in impulse control ✦ Disturbances in iden&ty: ✦ Intense fear of abandonment ✦ Typically very manipula;ve within personal rela;onships ✦ Disturbances in affect: ✦ High level of emo;onal instability ✦ Disturbances in impulse control: ✦ High rate of par;cipa;on in risky behavior Personality Disorders - Antisocial ✦ An7social personality disorder (APD) – characterized by a lack of empathy for others & remorse for one’s own ac;ons ✦ Was termed Psychopath un;l 1980 ✦ Diagnos;c criteria: ✦ Be at least 18 yr old, but display an;social conduct before age 15 ✦ Repeatedly commit illegal acts, use aliases, show liple regard for one’s own safety or the safety of others ✦ As much as 50% of the US prison popula;on meets the criteria for an APD diagnosis (1995) Personality Disorders - Antisocial ✦ Poten;al causes: ✦ Low neural arousal levels ✦ May seek out risky behavior more, respond less to punishment ✦ Amygdala dysfunc;on ✦ Smaller amygdala volume; decreased responsiveness ✦ Environmental components ✦ May be related to low SES, dysfunc;onal fami...
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2014 for the course PSC 001 taught by Professor P during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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