Lecture15_Ch14_PsychDisorders_x3

Out risky behavior more respond less to punishment

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Unformatted text preview: lies, or early childhood abuse Eating Disorders ✦ Characterized by disturbance in feeding & ea;ng behaviors ✦ Includes the following diagnoses: ✦ Pica ✦ Rumina;on disorder ✦ Anorexia nervosa ✦ Bulimia nervosa ✦ Binge ea7ng disorder ✦ Avoidant/restric;ve food intake disorder Eating Disorders ✦ Anorexia Nervosa ✦ Intense fear of gaining weight or persistent behavior that interferes w/ weight gain ✦ Disturbance in body image ✦ Bulimia Nervosa ✦ Recurrent episodes of binge ea;ng ✦ large amount of food, uncontrolled ✦ Recurrent compensatory behavior ✦ laxa;ves, self- induced vomi;ng, excessive exercise ✦ Self- evalua;on unduly influenced by body shape/weight Eating Disorders ✦ Binge- ea7ng disorder – characterized by binge ea;ng at least 2 ;mes a week, but without purging. ✦ Includes: ✦ ea;ng more rapidly ✦ ea;ng un;l uncomfortably full ✦ ea;ng large amounts when not physically hungry ✦ ea;ng alone ✦ feeling disgusted w/ oneself, depressed, or guilty ✦ More prevalent in males & ethnic minori;es Neurodevelopmental Disorders ✦ Disorders that occur in childhood or throughout early development ✦ Must be considered in the context of typical development ✦ Includes: ✦ Intellectual disabili;es ✦ Communica;on disorders ✦ Au7sm spectrum disorder ✦ AMen7on- deficit/hyperac7vity disorder ✦ Specific learning disorders ✦ Motor disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder ✦ New diagnosis in the DSM- 5 that now groups all variants of au;sm, as well as Asperger’s syndrome ✦ 2 cri;cal components of the diagnosis: ✦ Impairment in social interac;ons ✦ Restric;ve or repe;;ve behaviors, interests, or ac;vi;es ✦ Severity occurs along a con;nuum, from mild (formerly Asperger’s syndrome) to severe Autism Spectrum Disorder ✦ Persistent deficits in social communica;on ✦ Social emo7onal reciprocity ✦ Conversa;on ✦ Sharing emo;ons, interests ✦ Ini;a;on of social interac;on ✦ Non verbal communica7on ✦ Gestures ✦ Eye- contact ✦ Developing & maintaining rela7onships ✦ Friends ✦ Interest in people Autism Spectrum Disorder ✦ Restricted repe;;ve paperns of behavior ✦ Repe77ve speech, motor movements, or use of objects ✦ Motor stereotypies ✦ Echolalia (word repe;;on) ✦ Rou7nes, ritualized paMerns of behavior ✦ Extreme distress at changes ✦ Restricted, fixated interests ✦ Preserva;ve interests ✦ Preoccupa;on w/ strange objects ✦ Hyper- or hyporeac7vity to sensory input ✦ Indifference to pain, sound ✦ Adverse response to specific sounds/textures Autism Spectrum Disorder - Causes ✦ Extremely varied & poorly understood e;ology! ✦ Poten;al causes: ✦ Gene7cs ✦ Rela;vely high concordance rate in some families ✦ Physiology ✦ Changes in the oxytocin system ✦ Varying OT levels in circula;ng plasma; gene muta;ons ✦ Perinatal events ✦ Increased brain growth up to age 2, then slower growth to age 5 Autism Spectrum Disorder - Causes ✦ Extremely varied & poorly understood e;ology! ✦ Poten;al causes: ✦ Immunology ✦ Increased abnormal an;bodies in mothers of children w/ ASDs; not seen in healthy controls ✦ Neural abnormali7es ✦ Poten;al impairment in mirror neuron func;oning ✦ Breakdown in neural connec;ons in parts of the social brain Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ✦ Characterized by ✦ restlessness ✦ ina7en8on ✦ impulsivity ✦ DSM- 5 instructs diagnosis w/ 6+ symptoms of ina7en8on & 6+ symptoms of hyperac8vity/impulsiveness ✦ last for 6+ months, occur before age 12, occur in mul;ple sekngs ✦ Diagnosis usually comes aFer entering a structured environment where they must follow rules Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ✦ Criteria: ✦ Symptoms of inaMen7on ✦ Easily distracted ✦ Difficulty sustaining apen;on ✦ Difficulty organizing ac;vi;es ✦ Struggle to follow instruc;ons ✦ Symptoms of hyperac7vity/impulsivity ✦ Fidgets ✦ Leaves seat when expected to sit ✦ Run or climbs in inappropriate situa;ons ✦ Difficulty wai;ng turn ✦ Interrupts or intrudes on others Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ✦ Also varied & poorly understood e;ology ✦ Poten;al causes: ✦ Dysfunc;onal family life ✦ Decreased metabolism in neural areas responsible for apen;on & self- regula;on...
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