Lecture14_Ch13_Personality_x3

0 not due to genes if mz twins are more similar

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Influences BIG FIVE TRAIT h2 estimate Openness to experience 0.46 Conscientiousness 0.28 Extraversion 0.36 Agreeableness 0.28 Neuroticism 0.31 Genetic Influences ✤ Polygenic – phenotype determined by multiple genes ✤ Pleiotropic – one gene causes multiple phenotypes ✤ Weak association b/n a single gene & personality (i.e., contribution to personality is more likely to be polygenic) ✤ Our genetic makeup most likely guides us to particular environments, thereby influencing our behaviors Genetic Influences ✤ Genetic dispositions influence the environment Elicit reactions from environment Genetic dispositions Selection of certain environments Neurophysiological Mechanisms ✤ Eysenck believed arousal/alertness is the basis for individual differences in extraversion ✤ Jeffrey Gray (1987) expanded on this with his approach/inhibition model ✤ 2 motivational functions: ✤ Behavioral approach system (BAS) ✤ Behavioral inhibition system (BIS) Neurophysiological ✤ Behavioral approach system (BAS) ✤ system that allows us to approach rewarding stimuli ✤ “go system” ✤ stronger in extroverts ✤ Behavioral inhibition system (BIS) ✤ system that causes us to avoid danger or punishment ✤ “stop system” ✤ stronger in introverts Developmental Changes ✤ The Big Five is remarkably stable across the life span (e.g., Fraley & Roberts, 2005): Developmental Changes ✤ There are notable changes throughout the life span ✤ Older adults, compared to adolescents & younger adults ✤ score significantly lower in neuroticism, extraversion, & openness ✤ score significantly higher in agreeableness & conscientiousness ✤ These effects seem due to maturational changes Developmental Changes ✤ 2 components to personality changes: ✤ Basic tendencies – dispositional traits controlled primarily by our biology ✤ Very stable over time ✤ Characteristic adaptations – adjustments we make based of the demands of a situation ✤ Based on our skills, habits, etc. ✤ More flexible, especially as we age ✤ We may display the same basic tendencies, but we do it in different ways across the lifespan Outline ✤ What is personality? ✤ Approaches to studying personality ✤ Fa...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online