0 not due to genes if mz twins are more similar

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Unformatted text preview: Influences BIG FIVE TRAIT h2 estimate Openness to experience 0.46 Conscientiousness 0.28 Extraversion 0.36 Agreeableness 0.28 Neuroticism 0.31 Genetic Influences ✤ Polygenic – phenotype determined by multiple genes ✤ Pleiotropic – one gene causes multiple phenotypes ✤ Weak association b/n a single gene & personality (i.e., contribution to personality is more likely to be polygenic) ✤ Our genetic makeup most likely guides us to particular environments, thereby influencing our behaviors Genetic Influences ✤ Genetic dispositions influence the environment Elicit reactions from environment Genetic dispositions Selection of certain environments Neurophysiological Mechanisms ✤ Eysenck believed arousal/alertness is the basis for individual differences in extraversion ✤ Jeffrey Gray (1987) expanded on this with his approach/inhibition model ✤ 2 motivational functions: ✤ Behavioral approach system (BAS) ✤ Behavioral inhibition system (BIS) Neurophysiological ✤ Behavioral approach system (BAS) ✤ system that allows us to approach rewarding stimuli ✤ “go system” ✤ stronger in extroverts ✤ Behavioral inhibition system (BIS) ✤ system that causes us to avoid danger or punishment ✤ “stop system” ✤ stronger in introverts Developmental Changes ✤ The Big Five is remarkably stable across the life span (e.g., Fraley & Roberts, 2005): Developmental Changes ✤ There are notable changes throughout the life span ✤ Older adults, compared to adolescents & younger adults ✤ score significantly lower in neuroticism, extraversion, & openness ✤ score significantly higher in agreeableness & conscientiousness ✤ These effects seem due to maturational changes Developmental Changes ✤ 2 components to personality changes: ✤ Basic tendencies – dispositional traits controlled primarily by our biology ✤ Very stable over time ✤ Characteristic adaptations – adjustments we make based of the demands of a situation ✤ Based on our skills, habits, etc. ✤ More flexible, especially as we age ✤ We may display the same basic tendencies, but we do it in different ways across the lifespan Outline ✤ What is personality? ✤ Approaches to studying personality ✤ Fa...
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