Unformatted text preview: dramatic mood changes) ✤ Psychoticism – a mix of aggression, impulse control, & empathy (now called restraint)
✤ High = aggressive, impulsive, self centered Biological Inﬂuences?
✤ Is there a biological basis for introversion/ extroversion?
✤ Hypothesis: neurophysiological arousal is the basis for individual diﬀerences in extraversion
✤ Introverts are more easily aroused than extraverts (arousal is aversive)
✤ Introverts become more inhibited than extroverts (being social feels bad) Biological Inﬂuences?
✤ Optimal level of arousal Extrovert Introvert Summary: Weaknesses in Multi- trait models
✤ Allport & Odbert (1936):
✤ No taxonomy for understand or measuring personality was provided
✤ 18,000 traits are too many!
✤ Cattell (1965):
✤ 16 personality factors are also too many factors to be parsimonious
✤ People diﬀer in meaningful ways not captured by 3 personality factors Five- Factor Theory
✤ The Big Five (McCrae & Costa, 1999)
✤ Openness to experience
✤ Neuroticism Five- Factor Theory Outline
✤ What is personality?
✤ Approaches to studying personality
✤ Factors associated with personality
✤ Ways to measure personality
✤ The self Cultural Inﬂuences
✤ Researchers suggest the Big Five is culturally universal (e.g., McCrae & Costa, 1997). Cultural Inﬂuences
✤ Some evidence suggests that the Big Five is only universal when using English translations
✤ When traits in native languages are used, only three factors emerge:
✤ Agreeableness ✤ Although most of the Big Five are culturally universal, some personality factors may be culturally- dependent Genetic Inﬂuences
✤ Genetic inﬂuences on personality can be calculated using a heritability coeﬃcient (h2)
✤ the proportion of variance in personality due to genetic factors
✤ h2 is the diﬀerence b/n identical (MZ) & fraternal (DZ) twins
✤ if MZ twins are more diﬀerent from each other than DZ twins, then h2 = ~ 0.0 (NOT due to genes) ✤ If MZ twins are more similar to each other than DZ twins, then h2 = ~ 1.0 (DUE to genes) Genetic Inﬂuences Genetic...
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