Lecture14_Ch13_Personality_x3

Emotional stability how much a persons mood emotions

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Unformatted text preview: dramatic mood changes) ✤ Psychoticism – a mix of aggression, impulse control, & empathy (now called restraint) ✤ High = aggressive, impulsive, self centered Biological Influences? ✤ Is there a biological basis for introversion/ extroversion? ✤ Hypothesis: neurophysiological arousal is the basis for individual differences in extraversion ✤ Introverts are more easily aroused than extraverts (arousal is aversive) ✤ Introverts become more inhibited than extroverts (being social feels bad) Biological Influences? ✤ Optimal level of arousal Extrovert Introvert Summary: Weaknesses in Multi- trait models ✤ Allport & Odbert (1936): ✤ No taxonomy for understand or measuring personality was provided ✤ 18,000 traits are too many! ✤ Cattell (1965): ✤ 16 personality factors are also too many factors to be parsimonious ✤ Eysenck: ✤ People differ in meaningful ways not captured by 3 personality factors Five- Factor Theory ✤ The Big Five (McCrae & Costa, 1999) ✤ Openness to experience ✤ Conscientiousness ✤ Extraversion ✤ Agreeableness ✤ Neuroticism Five- Factor Theory Outline ✤ What is personality? ✤ Approaches to studying personality ✤ Factors associated with personality ✤ Ways to measure personality ✤ The self Cultural Influences ✤ Researchers suggest the Big Five is culturally universal (e.g., McCrae & Costa, 1997). Cultural Influences ✤ Some evidence suggests that the Big Five is only universal when using English translations ✤ When traits in native languages are used, only three factors emerge: ✤ Conscientiousness ✤ Extraversion ✤ Agreeableness ✤ Although most of the Big Five are culturally universal, some personality factors may be culturally- dependent Genetic Influences ✤ Genetic influences on personality can be calculated using a heritability coefficient (h2) ✤ the proportion of variance in personality due to genetic factors ✤ h2 is the difference b/n identical (MZ) & fraternal (DZ) twins ✤ if MZ twins are more different from each other than DZ twins, then h2 = ~ 0.0 (NOT due to genes) ✤ If MZ twins are more similar to each other than DZ twins, then h2 = ~ 1.0 (DUE to genes) Genetic Influences Genetic...
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